28/12/2014

Western Tibet The sacred country of Hindus and Buddhist

ETHNOFLORENCE

N. 855

BOOK OF THE WEEK

Western Tibet

and

The British Bordeland

The sacred country of Hindus and Buddhist

by

Charles A.Sherring

London

Edward Arnold

1906

 1 TIBETAN MASKED DANCERS.gif

Tibetan Masked Dancers

 2 TIBETAN DANCERS WEARING MASKS.gif

Tibetan Dancers wearing Masks

 3 TIBETAN MASKS.gif

Tibetan Dancers

 4.gif

Note the drum and the mask in foreground

 5.gif

Bhotia Women

 7.gif

The Chum or Rani, wife of the three brothers

 8.gif

A Tibetan wedding: The Bride

 9.gif

A Tibetan: The Bridegroom

 10.gif

Tibetan Charm, Jug, Bell

 11.gif

 12.gif

 13.gif

 14.gif

 15.gif

 16.gif

 17.gif

18.gif

19.gif

***********

*****

*

MASK OF THE DAY

FUNGUS RAI MASKS

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS COLLECTION

BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/archive/2007/12/21/art-tribal...

 

fungus rai mask (4).jpg

 

 

fungus rai mask (1).jpg

 

 

fungus rai mask (2).jpg

fungus rai mask (3).jpg

fungus rai mask (5).jpg

19/07/2012

ARTE TRIBALE DEI SANTAL DHODRO BANAM

ARTE TRIBALE DEI SANTAL

(english and italian version)

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS

*

Questa pagina non sarebbe stata realizzabile senza il prezioso contributo di materiale fotorafico da parte di:

This page could not be possible 

without the precious contribute

of  pictures

by

COLLECTION MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES  © PHOTO CLAUDE GERMAIN

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

http://www.nepaltribalart.com/index.asp?p=65

ROBERT BRUNDAGE PETALUMA CA

http://www.artyeti.com/

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/

FREDERIC ROND PARIS

http://www.indianheritage.biz/

HERVE PERDIOLLE PARIS

http://herveperdriollecv.blogspot.com/

MORDACCI  COLLECTION

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/a-m-collection-all-ri...

SANATAN KAVADIYA NEW DELHI

http://www.tribalartsindia.com/

RICHARD LAIR

and text 

by

ELIO REVERA BRESCIA

http://artidellemaninere.forumattivo.it/f8-love-driven-ch...

ETHNOFLORENCE

*******

An online

vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

ON

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

*****

Mus+®e de la Castre_Cannes_1991.21.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

"...une vièle Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, évocateur. 

Sa présence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. 

Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  

C'est bien ici l'exemple d'un objet  d'artisanat, échappant  à son usage pour accéder à l'intemporel".

Pierre  Fernandez   Arman

on  

"Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d'Aquisitions d'Art Primitif

du

Musée de la Castre" 

Cannes

l.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Perché ci circondiamo di bellezza? E perché questo circondarci non ci ha mai appagato, noi uomini, di ogni dove e di ogni tempo? Per una semplice ed insieme cogente motivazione: perché ne abbiamo bisogno!

Guardo questo oggetto che cari amici hanno avuto l’ardire di porre sotto i miei occhi; l’ardire, perché conoscono la mia limitata cultura ed il mio sconfinato amore per le produzioni artistiche di un altro continente.

Ma la loro è una sfida vinta in partenza: questa straordinaria creazione, l’immagine di questa fanciulla dai seni puntuti e da un’ incredibile quanto armoniosa corolla, mi ha conquistato al primo sguardo.

Non ha importanza cosa sia.

Io ne ammiro le purissime forme, ancestrali, evocative, ardite e stupefacenti: ed i miei sensi sono appagati da quella Dea misteriosa e sublime….avita e sconosciuta: la dea della Bellezza che in ogni cultura ha ricevuto nomi diversi, ma dovunque ha lascito profondissima traccia di sé, col suo passo lieve ed incorporeo.

( Elio Revera, socioanalista)

Dhodro Banam_5 - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

I santal scolpirono i loro liuti antropomorfi, i Dhodro Banam, spesso nella forma di una donna, trasfigurando le risonance dell'istrumento nelle rotondità plastiche conosciute nella scultura Hindu reinterpretate al livello tribale attraverso la simplificazione  e distorsione domandata e dettata dalla particolare forma dello strumento.

The Santal

carved their one stringed lutes sometimes in the shape of  a woman,

transfigurating the resonance of the instrument into rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by simplifications and distortions demanded by the

shape of the instrument.

5.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

L'interpretazone che segue dello strumento effettuata da Stella Kramrisch è una delle più acute espresse in queto campo, e allo stesso tempo poetica.

The prophetic head with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the turning keyes as a kind of ear ornament, carried aloft on a neck of inordinate length,

is a noble mask.

Through its thin lipped mouth god may speak.

Il banam è considerato infatti un tramite tra l'umano ed il divino.

dyn007_original_680_606_pjpeg_2592525_3c4d9cdc1f07f7b2d46d9ac58b46f980.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Il suono dello strumento quasi emanazione del volto femminile diviene profetica voce.

Sound and mask, the prophetic voice which speaks through mask and instrument,

link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation of the numinous.

Resume from

Stella Kramrisch

(Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and Village)

6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Strumento inteso come medium punto di contatto tra il visbile e l'invisibile.

The Santals believe in the magical powers of this musical instrument, a medium between the human beings and the supernatural.

k.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

w.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Anatomia umana e iconografia del Banam.

The Banam

resume in its various parts the anatomy of an human being: head, ears, neck, chest and stomach. The string is the most important part of the instrument, because it unites the other parts of the liute together, it's considered as the breadth of the Banam.

Immagine 002

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

The Head (Bonok) of the instrument represents the Space.

eck (hatok) and chest (koram) are directly connected with the Respiration and represents the equivalent natural element of the Air.

The stomach (lac) represents the fire.

The ears (lutur) the ether.

The term banam means body and represents the earth.

12 (2).jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Mito orale che ci racconta della mitologica origine del Dhodro Banam.

One oral Myth of the Santal told us the mithologyc origin of the Dhrodo Banam

 

Once upon a time  lived an old couple.

 

They had seven sons and a daughter who was the youngest of all.

The sons used to go  hunting and the sister cooked meals for them.

Some time later the couple died.

All their sons and daughter came to a forest to live  in the same way as they used to live earlier, the sister cooked the meals and looked after the house while the seven brothers went hunting.

 

One day while their sister was cutting sin arak (leaf-vegetable), one of her fingers got cut, and the blood of the wound got mixed with the vegetable.

She cooked it and served it to her brothers after their return.

They found the vegetable delicious.

So they asked their sister how the vegetable became so tasty, and found that her blood had got mixed with it.

The eldest brother wondered that if her blood could make the food so delicious, how tasty would her flesh be.

So he decided to kill her and share her flesh with his brothers.

Her body was then cut in seven pieces and each brother received a piece.

Except the youngest brother, the other ate the sister's flesh, he went to a pond sadly with his share, the fish, the crab and all the other creatures of the place, seeing this asked him the reason of his sorrow.

The youngest brother narrated them the whole story, after that the creatures of the pond suggested him not to eat the flesh of his sister and instead to put it inside the mound of white ants.

Some year later, in the place grew  a huge guloic tree.

It started to grow beautifull flowers and a melodious sound was heard from the tree.

A jugi who often used to come to the tree for picking up flowers heard this melodious sound and remained astonished.

One day he decided to cut a brunch from the magic tree and with them he constructed the first  musical instrument the

DHODRO BANAM.

 

(Text resumed  from SANTHAL MUSIC Onkar Prasad 1985)

 

*************

 

Dancers, dressed with a Sari, analogous subject we can find   in  old photos of Elwin Verrier and  in the iconography of  some carved panels of the wedding palkee of the Santal Parganas tribe as well as of the Banam.

11.jpg

 (Photo Ethnoflorence)

Ancora Stella Kramrisch caratterizza la plastica iconografia di questi pannelli istoriati dei Santal, parte delle lettighe matrimoniali tipiche dell'etnia Parganas.

 

Il parallelo con i rilievi egiziani è molto sugestivo.

 

The narrative typical carving of the panels, in low profile,  it is characterized by human figures in combined front profile view, limbs at times overlapped in telling gestures and lively actions of spontaneously formed group, and are based roughly on one groundline in common, in a cursive notation of figures, human and animal, more valuable and surely less expert, but according to Stella Kramrisch somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs.

 

10.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

Seguono informazioni circa la lettiga matrimoniale e della loro iconografia.

 

DANCERS AND MUSICIANS

 

The Santal wedding  litter is called

 

 RAHI

 

and was made by tribal craftsmen themselves.

 

The RAHI was created with a certain amount of ceremony.

 

According to Verrier Elwin and Stella Kramrisch

 

 When work was started, two pigeons were sacrificed;

 

when it was completed the couple sat on it and were carried to the central Manjhithan where more pigeons or a goat were offered.

 

THE ACTIVITY OF CARVING WAS PART OF THE MARRIAGE    RITE,  AS    WAS THE PROCESSION     OF      THE  MARRIAGE  LITTER

 

The themes

 

The main subjects carved on the Rahi's panels are derived from the local ceremonies, such  as marriages, the Miths of the Santal creation, the totems devoted to the twelve Santal clans, the Santal Hul or Santali rebellion of 1855, and especially the everyday life scenes.

 

A part of these themes it's common with the carved top of the Banam.

 

dyn005_original_400_602_pjpeg_2592525_eb2cb763ec2b0a97b02d93581a669b50.jpg

 (Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

13.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

22.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

14.jpg

 (Photo Ethoflorence)

Dhodro Banam_1.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

The Santal

traditionally accompanied many of their dances with two kind of drums the Tamak' and the Tumdak' the kettle-drum 'nagara' and  the oboe 'shanai' These musical traditions are reflects on the Banam lutes and Rahi panels iconography where the dancers are seldom accompanied by musicians too

DSCN7107.JPG

(Picture from Tribal Art of Middle India 1951 by Verrier Elwin)

33.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

dyn001_original_680_512_pjpeg_2592525_e0aba2c321c57b852aa360899dea390c.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

dyn002_original_640_480_pjpeg_2638188_e87409b263c850806b5f490e5650536e.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

dyn010_original_680_456_pjpeg_2592525_2a94c19faf8d32e643b9c6e222f9ae77.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

dyn010_original_680_466_pjpeg_2592525_a7f8e7873eb96ed385b3629e65cad31d.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sometimes musicians and dancers are accompanied also by acrobatic perfomers.

135.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Animalia nella iconografia dei Santal del Bihar

HORSES HORSEMEN AND ELEPHANTS

Another quite common iconography that we can find on the Rahi Panels is linked with the presence of elephants, horses and horsemen. Sometimes these representations are  linked with the marriage procession. It's possible to find carved  a similar iconography also on the top of  the Banam

Dhodro Banam_6(back).jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

Above Exceptional iconography of a rider and horse on the back carved top of a banam lute

P1000174.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

17.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

39.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

P1000178.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A.M.)

DSCF3603.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

SACRO AND PROFANO

Questo pannello eccezzionale nella resa iconografica ci presenta una sorta di fusione iconografica tra elementi sacri a destra e profani a sinistra.

Caratteristica tipica della libera inventiva di queste popolazioni, comune anche alla plastica 'reinventata' di tutta l'arte popolare della regione himalayana.

Bicycle.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

A mix of subjects is the iconographic base of this very interesting panel

HUNTING SCENES

Scene di caccia

archetipi universali

1258560570.jpg

(Photo Courtesy A. M.)

4106938674.jpg

(Photo courtesy A. M.)

SANTAL HUL

La rivolta dei santal

148.jpg

(Photo  Ethnoflorence)

80.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

81.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

ANIMALIA AND EVERYDAY LIFE

Toddy Palm.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

Animals - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

Animals.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

1 (2).JPG

(Photo courtesy A.M.)

4125466665.jpg

 

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

*************

sketchesfromsant00pedeiala_0169.jpg

(Sketches from Santalistan, Pederson, Mathew A. 1913)

http://archive.org/details/sketchesfromsant00pede

Un altro strumento musicale della tradizione dei Santal è il flauto traverso, ne presentiamo qui alcuni molto interessanti con estremità in bronzo fuse a cera persa.

The flute

held an important role in the music tradition of the Santal people.

DSCF4677 - Copia.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

3 flutes.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

flutes6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

DSCF4677.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Two flutes of this particulary rich tipology are present also in the collection of the Musee de la Castre of Cannes.

 1992.16.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.16.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.17.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

1992.17.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

***********

CHADOR BADONI

Puppet small wodden idol

Definition from 

A vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

73924_171960832816631_100000081457478_594899_904374_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Khavadiya)

71761_171961089483272_100000081457478_594910_1082616_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

73844_171962069483174_100000081457478_594925_4013181_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171960996149948_100000081457478_594903_6726846_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171961002816614_100000081457478_594905_8328388_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy Sanatan Kavadiya)

puppets48.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

*****************

PITTURA MAGICA DEI SANTAL

JADUPATUA

jadu = magician ; patua –or chitrakar- = painter

Santal Parganas

State of Bihar, India

(Text and pictures courtesy of  Herve Perdiolle)

Patuas and Jadupatuas from Bihar

(Creation of the world 1980)

The Jadu Patuas are painters and story tellers and go from village to village carrying their painted scrolls made of paper sheets sewn together with a bamboo stick on each extremity.

Jadu means "Magician".

The themes they represent on the scrolls are  about a dozen . However, there is different interpretation for each theme. A Jadu Patua can, looking at one scroll, say different stories depending if his audience is Hindu, Muslim or Santal. This last ethnic group is the most important audience for the Jadu Patuas.

The Patuas live with the money that the villagers give them after listening to their stories. The fact that they are magicians give a special effect to their intervention because the villagers fear them.

One of the most revealing images of the Jadu Patuas' role (in the Santal community) is the

"Mritu pat"

or

"image of the deaths"

. When somebody dies in a village near the Jadu Patua's one, the "artist magician" visits the family of the dead with a small and simple image (about 3 x 2 inches) which is supposed to represent the dead in a simple way.

Only the late person's pupil is missing.

Showing this image to the family, the Jadu Patua tells the story evoking the suffering of the dead whose soul is still trapped in hell.

The family then gives an offering to the Jadu Patua in order for him to intervene. The ritual for the Magician painter consists then to paint the dead's pupil in order to free his soul.

The principles developed by the Jadu Patuas are :

the Baha's feast

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

a strange mixture of Hindu and Santal myths showing a lot of festivities where tribal dances, sacrifices and drinking sessions scenes are mixed;

the creation of the world

(Anonyme, Création du monde, 1990, couleurs végétales sur papier, 20x420 cm)

where we can see the first human couple being born from the coupling of a goose and a gande; the painting of Kali

lai scroll painting

(Anonyme, Kali pat, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 30x240 cm, collection privée.)

composed with 3 or 4 paper sheets only, showing Kali in her most terrifying aspects

and a lot of scrolls about Yama the god of hell (showing all the ill treatments, sometimes sexual, given by Yama and his servants to the dead who behaved badly during their lifetime).

It seems that the scarier the Jadu Patuas'style gets, the more highly he is regarded.

***

**

*

 

 

 

 

15/06/2012

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS DHODRO BANAM LUTE OF THE SANTAL ADIVASI TRIBAL ART

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS

*

This page could not be possible 

without the precious contribute

of  pictures

by

COLLECTION MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES  © PHOTO CLAUDE GERMAIN

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

http://www.nepaltribalart.com/index.asp?p=65

ROBERT BRUNDAGE PETALUMA CA

http://www.artyeti.com/

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/

FREDERIC ROND PARIS

http://www.indianheritage.biz/

HERVE PERDIOLLE PARIS

http://herveperdriollecv.blogspot.com/

MORDACCI  COLLECTION

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/a-m-collection-all-ri...

SANATAN KAVADIYA NEW DELHI

http://www.tribalartsindia.com/

RICHARD LAIR

and text 

by

ELIO REVERA BRESCIA

http://artidellemaninere.forumattivo.it/f8-love-driven-ch...

ETHNOFLORENCE

*******

An online

vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

ON

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

*****

Mus+®e de la Castre_Cannes_1991.21.1.jpg

 

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

*

"...une vièle Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, évocateur. 

 

Sa présence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. 

 

Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  

 

C'est bien ici l'exemple d'un objet  d'artisanat, échappant  à son usage pour accéder à l'intemporel".

 

Pierre  Fernandez   Arman

on  

"Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d'Aquisitions d'Art Primitif

du

Musée de la Castre" 

Cannes

l.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Perché ci circondiamo di bellezza?

E perché questo circondarci non ci ha mai appagato, noi uomini, di ogni dove e di ogni tempo?

Per una semplice ed insieme cogente motivazione: perché ne abbiamo bisogno!

 

Guardo questo oggetto che cari amici hanno avuto l’ardire di porre sotto i miei occhi; l’ardire, perché conoscono la mia limitata cultura ed il mio sconfinato amore per le produzioni artistiche di un altro continente.

 

Ma la loro è una sfida vinta in partenza: questa straordinaria creazione, l’immagine di questa fanciulla dai seni puntuti e da un’ incredibile quanto armoniosa corolla, mi ha conquistato al primo sguardo.

 

Non ha importanza cosa sia.

 

Io ne ammiro le purissime forme, ancestrali, evocative, ardite e stupefacenti: ed i miei sensi sono appagati da quella Dea misteriosa e sublime….avita e sconosciuta: la dea della Bellezza che in ogni cultura ha ricevuto nomi diversi, ma dovunque ha lascito profondissima traccia di sé, col suo passo lieve ed incorporeo.

 ( Elio Revera, socioanalista)

 

Dhodro Banam_5 - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

The Santal

carved

their one stringed lutes sometimes in the shape of  a woman,

transfigurating the resonance of the instrument

into

rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by simplifications and distortions demanded by the

shape of the instrument.

 

5.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

The prophetic head

with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the turning keyes as a kind of ear ornament,

carried aloft on a neck of inordinate length,

is a noble mask.

Through its thin lipped mouth

a

god may speak.

 

dyn007_original_680_606_pjpeg_2592525_3c4d9cdc1f07f7b2d46d9ac58b46f980.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sound and mask,

the prophetic voice

which speaks through mask and instrument,

link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation

of the numinous.

Resume from

Stella Kramrisch

(Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and Village)

 

6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

The Santals

believe

in the magical powers of this musical instrument,

a medium between the human beings and the supernatural.

 

k.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

 

w.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

The Banam

resume

in its various parts the anatomy of an human being:

head, ears, neck, chest and stomach.

The string

is the most important part of the instrument,

because it unites the other parts of the liute together, it's considered as the

breadth

of the Banam.

 

Immagine 002

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

The Head (Bonok) of the instrument represents the Space.

Neck (hatok) and chest (koram) are directly connected with the Respiration and represents the equivalent natural element of the Air.

The stomach (lac) represents the fire.

The ears (lutur) the ether.

The term banam means body and represents the earth.
 

12 (2).jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)
 
One oral Myth of the Santal told us the mithologyc origin of the Dhrodo Banam
 
Once upon a time  lived an old couple.
They had seven sons and a daughter who was the youngest of all.
The sons used to go  hunting and the sister cooked meals for them.
Some time later the couple died.
All their sons and daughter came to a forest to live  in the same way as they used to live earlier, the sister cooked the meals and looked after the house while the seven brothers went hunting.
 
One day while their sister was cutting sin arak (leaf-vegetable), one of her fingers got cut, and the blood of the wound got mixed with the vegetable.
She cooked it and served it to her brothers after their return.
They found the vegetable delicious.
So they asked their sister how the vegetable became so tasty, and found that her blood had got mixed with it.
The eldest brother wondered that if her blood could make the food so delicious, how tasty would her flesh be.
So he decided to kill her and share her flesh with his brothers.
Her body was then cut in seven pieces and each brother received a piece.
Except the youngest brother, the other ate the sister's flesh, he went to a pond sadly with his share, the fish, the crab and all the other creatures of the place, seeing this asked him the reason of his sorrow.
The youngest brother narrated them the whole story, after that the creatures of the pond suggested him not to eat the flesh of his sister and instead to put it inside the mound of white ants.
Some year later, in the place grew  a huge guloic tree.
It started to grow beautifull flowers and a melodious sound was heard from the tree.
A jugi who often used to come to the tree for picking up flowers heard this melodious sound and remained astonished.
One day he decided to cut a brunch from the magic tree and with them he constructed the first  musical instrument the
DHODRO BANAM.
 
(Text resumed  from SANTHAL MUSIC Onkar Prasad 1985)
 
*************
 
Dancers, dressed with a Sari, analogous subject we can find   in  old photos of Elwin Verrier and  in the iconography of  some carved panels of the wedding palkee of the Santal Parganas tribe as well as of the Banam.
11.jpg

 (Photo Ethnoflorence)

The narrative typical carving of the panels, in low profile,  it is characterized by human figures in combined front profile view, limbs at times overlapped in telling gestures and lively actions of spontaneously formed group, and are based roughly on one groundline in common, in a cursive notation of figures, human and animal, more valuable and surely less expert, but according to Stella Kramrisch somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs.

10.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

DANCERS AND MUSICIANS

The Santal wedding  litter is called

 RAHI

and was made by tribal craftsmen themselves.

The RAHI was created with a certain amount of ceremony.

According to Verrier Elwin and Stella Kramrisch

 When work was started, two pigeons were sacrificed;

when it was completed the couple sat on it and were carried to the central Manjhithan where more pigeons or a goat were offered.

THE ACTIVITY OF CARVING WAS PART OF THE MARRIAGE    RITE,  AS    WAS THE PROCESSION     OF      THE  MARRIAGE  LITTER

The themes

The main subjects carved on the Rahi's panels are derived from the local ceremonies, such  as marriages, the Miths of the Santal creation, the totems devoted to the twelve Santal clans, the Santal Hul or Santali rebellion of 1855, and especially the everyday life scenes.

A part of these themes it's common with the carved top of the Banam.

 

  

dyn005_original_400_602_pjpeg_2592525_eb2cb763ec2b0a97b02d93581a669b50.jpg

 (Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

13.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

22.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

14.jpg

 (Photo Ethoflorence)

Dhodro Banam_1.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

The Santal

traditionally accompanied many of their dances with two kind of drums the

Tamak' and the Tumdak'

the kettle-drum 'nagara'

and  the

oboe 'shanai'

These musical traditions are reflects on the Banam lutes and Rahi panels

iconography

where

the dancers

are seldom accompanied by musicians too

 

DSCN7107.JPG

(Picture from Tribal Art of Middle India 1951 by Verrier Elwin)

 

33.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

dyn001_original_680_512_pjpeg_2592525_e0aba2c321c57b852aa360899dea390c.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

dyn002_original_640_480_pjpeg_2638188_e87409b263c850806b5f490e5650536e.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

dyn010_original_680_456_pjpeg_2592525_2a94c19faf8d32e643b9c6e222f9ae77.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

dyn010_original_680_466_pjpeg_2592525_a7f8e7873eb96ed385b3629e65cad31d.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sometimes musicians and dancers are accompanied also by acrobatic perfomers.

135.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

HORSES HORSEMEN AND ELEPHANTS

Another quite common iconography that we can find on the Rahi Panels is linked with the presence of elephants, horses and horsemen.

Sometimes these representations are  linked with the marriage procession.

It's possible to find carved  a similar iconography also on the top of  the Banam

 

Dhodro Banam_6(back).jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

Above

Exceptional iconography of a rider and horse on

the back carved top of a banam lute.

P1000174.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

17.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

39.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

P1000178.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A.M.)

 

 

DSCF3603.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

SACRO AND PROFANO

 

Bicycle.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

A mix of subjects is the iconographic base of this very interesting panel

HUNTING SCENES

1258560570.jpg

(Photo Courtesy A. M.)

 

4106938674.jpg

(Photo courtesy A. M.)

SANTAL HUL

 

148.jpg

(Photo  Ethnoflorence)

 

80.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

81.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

ANIMALIA AND EVERYDAY LIFE

 

Toddy Palm.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

1 (2).JPG

(Photo courtesy A.M.)

 

4125466665.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

*************

 

sketchesfromsant00pedeiala_0169.jpg

(Sketches from Santalistan, Pederson, Mathew A. 1913)

http://archive.org/details/sketchesfromsant00pede

 

The flute

held an important role in the music tradition of the Santal people.

DSCF4677 - Copia.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

3 flutes.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

flutes6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

DSCF4677.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Two flutes

of this particulary rich tipology are present also in the collection of the Musee de la Castre of Cannes.

 1992.16.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.16.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.17.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

1992.17.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

***********

CHADOR BADONI

 

Puppet small wodden idol

 

Definition from 

A vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

 

73924_171960832816631_100000081457478_594899_904374_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Khavadiya)

71761_171961089483272_100000081457478_594910_1082616_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

73844_171962069483174_100000081457478_594925_4013181_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171960996149948_100000081457478_594903_6726846_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171961002816614_100000081457478_594905_8328388_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy Sanatan Kavadiya)

 

puppets48.jpg

 

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

*****************

JADUPATUA

jadu = magician ; patua –or chitrakar- = painter

Santal Parganas

State of Bihar, India

(Text and pictures courtesy of  Herve Perdiolle)

 

 

Patuas and Jadupatuas from Bihar

(Creation of the world 1980)

 

The Jadu Patuas are painters and story tellers and go from village to village carrying their painted scrolls made of paper sheets sewn together with a bamboo stick on each extremity.

Jadu means "Magician".

The themes they represent on the scrolls are  about a dozen . However, there is different interpretation for each theme. A Jadu Patua can, looking at one scroll, say different stories depending if his audience is Hindu, Muslim or Santal. This last ethnic group is the most important audience for the Jadu Patuas.

 

The Patuas live with the money that the villagers give them after listening to their stories. The fact that they are magicians give a special effect to their intervention because the villagers fear them.

 

One of the most revealing images of the Jadu Patuas' role (in the Santal community) is the

 

"Mritu pat"

 

or

 

"image of the deaths"

 

. When somebody dies in a village near the Jadu Patua's one, the "artist magician" visits the family of the dead with a small and simple image (about 3 x 2 inches) which is supposed to represent the dead in a simple way.

 

Only the late person's pupil is missing.

 

Showing this image to the family, the Jadu Patua tells the story evoking the suffering of the dead whose soul is still trapped in hell.

 

The family then gives an offering to the Jadu Patua in order for him to intervene. The ritual for the Magician painter consists then to paint the dead's pupil in order to free his soul.

 

The principles developed by the Jadu Patuas are :

 

the Baha's feast

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

a strange mixture of Hindu and Santal myths showing a lot of festivities where tribal dances, sacrifices and drinking sessions scenes are mixed;

 

the creation of the world

(Anonyme, Création du monde, 1990, couleurs végétales sur papier, 20x420 cm)

where we can see the first human couple being born from the coupling of a goose and a gande;

 

the painting of Kali

lai scroll painting

(Anonyme, Kali pat, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 30x240 cm, collection privée.)

composed with 3 or 4 paper sheets only, showing Kali in her most terrifying aspects

 

and a lot of scrolls about

 

Yama

 

the god of hell (showing all the ill treatments, sometimes sexual, given by Yama and his servants to the dead who behaved badly during their lifetime).

 

It seems that the scarier the Jadu Patuas'style gets, the more highly he is regarded.

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

 

 

 

05/04/2012

TRIBAL ARTS OF THE SANTAL PEOPLE

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS

*

This page could not be possible 

without the precious contribute

of  pictures

by

COLLECTION MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES  © PHOTO CLAUDE GERMAIN

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

http://www.nepaltribalart.com/index.asp?p=65

ROBERT BRUNDAGE PETALUMA CA

http://www.artyeti.com/

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/

FREDERIC ROND PARIS

http://www.indianheritage.biz/

HERVE PERDIOLLE PARIS

http://herveperdriollecv.blogspot.com/

MORDACCI  COLLECTION

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/a-m-collection-all-ri...

SANATAN KAVADIYA NEW DELHI

http://www.tribalartsindia.com/

RICHARD LAIR

and text 

by

ELIO REVERA BRESCIA

http://artidellemaninere.forumattivo.it/f8-love-driven-ch...

ETHNOFLORENCE

*******

An online

vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

ON

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

*****

Mus+®e de la Castre_Cannes_1991.21.1.jpg

 

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

*

"...une vièle Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, évocateur. 

 

Sa présence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. 

 

Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  

 

C'est bien ici l'exemple d'un objet  d'artisanat, échappant  à son usage pour accéder à l'intemporel".

 

Pierre  Fernandez   Arman

on  

"Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d'Aquisitions d'Art Primitif

du

Musée de la Castre" 

Cannes

l.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Perché ci circondiamo di bellezza?

E perché questo circondarci non ci ha mai appagato, noi uomini, di ogni dove e di ogni tempo?

Per una semplice ed insieme cogente motivazione: perché ne abbiamo bisogno!

 

Guardo questo oggetto che cari amici hanno avuto l’ardire di porre sotto i miei occhi; l’ardire, perché conoscono la mia limitata cultura ed il mio sconfinato amore per le produzioni artistiche di un altro continente.

 

Ma la loro è una sfida vinta in partenza: questa straordinaria creazione, l’immagine di questa fanciulla dai seni puntuti e da un’ incredibile quanto armoniosa corolla, mi ha conquistato al primo sguardo.

 

Non ha importanza cosa sia.

 

Io ne ammiro le purissime forme, ancestrali, evocative, ardite e stupefacenti: ed i miei sensi sono appagati da quella Dea misteriosa e sublime….avita e sconosciuta: la dea della Bellezza che in ogni cultura ha ricevuto nomi diversi, ma dovunque ha lascito profondissima traccia di sé, col suo passo lieve ed incorporeo.

 ( Elio Revera, socioanalista)

 

Dhodro Banam_5 - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

The Santal

carved

their one stringed lutes sometimes in the shape of  a woman,

transfigurating the resonance of the instrument

into

rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by simplifications and distortions demanded by the

shape of the instrument.

 

5.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

The prophetic head

with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the turning keyes as a kind of ear ornament,

carried aloft on a neck of inordinate length,

is a noble mask.

Through its thin lipped mouth

a

god may speak.

 

dyn007_original_680_606_pjpeg_2592525_3c4d9cdc1f07f7b2d46d9ac58b46f980.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sound and mask,

the prophetic voice

which speaks through mask and instrument,

link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation

of the numinous.

Resume from

Stella Kramrisch

(Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and Village)

 

6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

The Santals

believe

in the magical powers of this musical instrument,

a medium between the human beings and the supernatural.

 

k.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

 

w.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

The Banam

resume

in its various parts the anatomy of an human being:

head, ears, neck, chest and stomach.

The string

is the most important part of the instrument,

because it unites the other parts of the liute together, it's considered as the

breadth

of the Banam.

 

Immagine 002

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

The Head (Bonok) of the instrument represents the Space.

Neck (hatok) and chest (koram) are directly connected with the Respiration and represents the equivalent natural element of the Air.

The stomach (lac) represents the fire.

The ears (lutur) the ether.

The term banam means body and represents the earth.
 

12 (2).jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)
 
One oral Myth of the Santal told us the mithologyc origin of the Dhrodo Banam
 
Once upon a time  lived an old couple.
They had seven sons and a daughter who was the youngest of all.
The sons used to go  hunting and the sister cooked meals for them.
Some time later the couple died.
All their sons and daughter came to a forest to live  in the same way as they used to live earlier, the sister cooked the meals and looked after the house while the seven brothers went hunting.
 
One day while their sister was cutting sin arak (leaf-vegetable), one of her fingers got cut, and the blood of the wound got mixed with the vegetable.
She cooked it and served it to her brothers after their return.
They found the vegetable delicious.
So they asked their sister how the vegetable became so tasty, and found that her blood had got mixed with it.
The eldest brother wondered that if her blood could make the food so delicious, how tasty would her flesh be.
So he decided to kill her and share her flesh with his brothers.
Her body was then cut in seven pieces and each brother received a piece.
Except the youngest brother, the other ate the sister's flesh, he went to a pond sadly with his share, the fish, the crab and all the other creatures of the place, seeing this asked him the reason of his sorrow.
The youngest brother narrated them the whole story, after that the creatures of the pond suggested him not to eat the flesh of his sister and instead to put it inside the mound of white ants.
Some year later, in the place grew  a huge guloic tree.
It started to grow beautifull flowers and a melodious sound was heard from the tree.
A jugi who often used to come to the tree for picking up flowers heard this melodious sound and remained astonished.
One day he decided to cut a brunch from the magic tree and with them he constructed the first  musical instrument the
DHODRO BANAM.
 
(Text resumed  from SANTHAL MUSIC Onkar Prasad 1985)
 
*************
 
Dancers, dressed with a Sari, analogous subject we can find   in  old photos of Elwin Verrier and  in the iconography of  some carved panels of the wedding palkee of the Santal Parganas tribe as well as of the Banam.
11.jpg

 (Photo Ethnoflorence)

The narrative typical carving of the panels, in low profile,  it is characterized by human figures in combined front profile view, limbs at times overlapped in telling gestures and lively actions of spontaneously formed group, and are based roughly on one groundline in common, in a cursive notation of figures, human and animal, more valuable and surely less expert, but according to Stella Kramrisch somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs.

10.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

DANCERS AND MUSICIANS

The Santal wedding  litter is called

 RAHI

and was made by tribal craftsmen themselves.

The RAHI was created with a certain amount of ceremony.

According to Verrier Elwin and Stella Kramrisch

 When work was started, two pigeons were sacrificed;

when it was completed the couple sat on it and were carried to the central Manjhithan where more pigeons or a goat were offered.

THE ACTIVITY OF CARVING WAS PART OF THE MARRIAGE    RITE,  AS    WAS THE PROCESSION     OF      THE  MARRIAGE  LITTER

The themes

The main subjects carved on the Rahi's panels are derived from the local ceremonies, such  as marriages, the Miths of the Santal creation, the totems devoted to the twelve Santal clans, the Santal Hul or Santali rebellion of 1855, and especially the everyday life scenes.

A part of these themes it's common with the carved top of the Banam.

 

  

dyn005_original_400_602_pjpeg_2592525_eb2cb763ec2b0a97b02d93581a669b50.jpg

 (Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

13.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

22.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

14.jpg

 (Photo Ethoflorence)

Dhodro Banam_1.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

The Santal

traditionally accompanied many of their dances with two kind of drums the

Tamak' and the Tumdak'

the kettle-drum 'nagara'

and  the

oboe 'shanai'

These musical traditions are reflects on the Banam lutes and Rahi panels

iconography

where

the dancers

are seldom accompanied by musicians too

 

DSCN7107.JPG

(Picture from Tribal Art of Middle India 1951 by Verrier Elwin)

 

33.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

dyn001_original_680_512_pjpeg_2592525_e0aba2c321c57b852aa360899dea390c.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

dyn002_original_640_480_pjpeg_2638188_e87409b263c850806b5f490e5650536e.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

dyn010_original_680_456_pjpeg_2592525_2a94c19faf8d32e643b9c6e222f9ae77.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

dyn010_original_680_466_pjpeg_2592525_a7f8e7873eb96ed385b3629e65cad31d.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sometimes musicians and dancers are accompanied also by acrobatic perfomers.

135.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

HORSES HORSEMEN AND ELEPHANTS

Another quite common iconography that we can find on the Rahi Panels is linked with the presence of elephants, horses and horsemen.

Sometimes these representations are  linked with the marriage procession.

It's possible to find carved  a similar iconography also on the top of  the Banam

 

Dhodro Banam_6(back).jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

Above

Exceptional iconography of a rider and horse on

the back carved top of a banam lute.

P1000174.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

17.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

39.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

P1000178.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A.M.)

 

 

DSCF3603.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

SACRO AND PROFANO

 

Bicycle.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

A mix of subjects is the iconographic base of this very interesting panel

HUNTING SCENES

1258560570.jpg

(Photo Courtesy A. M.)

 

4106938674.jpg

(Photo courtesy A. M.)

SANTAL HUL

 

148.jpg

(Photo  Ethnoflorence)

 

80.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

81.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

ANIMALIA AND EVERYDAY LIFE

 

Toddy Palm.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

1 (2).JPG

(Photo courtesy A.M.)

 

4125466665.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

*************

 

sketchesfromsant00pedeiala_0169.jpg

(Sketches from Santalistan, Pederson, Mathew A. 1913)

http://archive.org/details/sketchesfromsant00pede

 

The flute

held an important role in the music tradition of the Santal people.

DSCF4677 - Copia.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

3 flutes.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

flutes6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

DSCF4677.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Two flutes

of this particulary rich tipology are present also in the collection of the Musee de la Castre of Cannes.

 1992.16.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.16.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.17.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

1992.17.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

***********

CHADOR BADONI

 

Puppet small wodden idol

 

Definition from 

A vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

 

73924_171960832816631_100000081457478_594899_904374_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Khavadiya)

71761_171961089483272_100000081457478_594910_1082616_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

73844_171962069483174_100000081457478_594925_4013181_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171960996149948_100000081457478_594903_6726846_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171961002816614_100000081457478_594905_8328388_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy Sanatan Kavadiya)

 

puppets48.jpg

 

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

*****************

JADUPATUA

jadu = magician ; patua –or chitrakar- = painter

Santal Parganas

State of Bihar, India

(Text and pictures courtesy of  Herve Perdiolle)

 

 

Patuas and Jadupatuas from Bihar

(Creation of the world 1980)

 

The Jadu Patuas are painters and story tellers and go from village to village carrying their painted scrolls made of paper sheets sewn together with a bamboo stick on each extremity.

Jadu means "Magician".

The themes they represent on the scrolls are  about a dozen . However, there is different interpretation for each theme. A Jadu Patua can, looking at one scroll, say different stories depending if his audience is Hindu, Muslim or Santal. This last ethnic group is the most important audience for the Jadu Patuas.

 

The Patuas live with the money that the villagers give them after listening to their stories. The fact that they are magicians give a special effect to their intervention because the villagers fear them.

 

One of the most revealing images of the Jadu Patuas' role (in the Santal community) is the

 

"Mritu pat"

 

or

 

"image of the deaths"

 

. When somebody dies in a village near the Jadu Patua's one, the "artist magician" visits the family of the dead with a small and simple image (about 3 x 2 inches) which is supposed to represent the dead in a simple way.

 

Only the late person's pupil is missing.

 

Showing this image to the family, the Jadu Patua tells the story evoking the suffering of the dead whose soul is still trapped in hell.

 

The family then gives an offering to the Jadu Patua in order for him to intervene. The ritual for the Magician painter consists then to paint the dead's pupil in order to free his soul.

 

The principles developed by the Jadu Patuas are :

 

the Baha's feast

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

a strange mixture of Hindu and Santal myths showing a lot of festivities where tribal dances, sacrifices and drinking sessions scenes are mixed;

 

the creation of the world

(Anonyme, Création du monde, 1990, couleurs végétales sur papier, 20x420 cm)

where we can see the first human couple being born from the coupling of a goose and a gande;

 

the painting of Kali

lai scroll painting

(Anonyme, Kali pat, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 30x240 cm, collection privée.)

composed with 3 or 4 paper sheets only, showing Kali in her most terrifying aspects

 

and a lot of scrolls about

 

Yama

 

the god of hell (showing all the ill treatments, sometimes sexual, given by Yama and his servants to the dead who behaved badly during their lifetime).

 

It seems that the scarier the Jadu Patuas'style gets, the more highly he is regarded.

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

 

 

 

10/03/2012

MASK NEPAL VOYAGE IN MONGOLIA MUSEE INTERNATIONAL DU CARNAVAL ET DU MASQUE of BINCHE 2003

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

21305_10151294840635948_1716294248_n.jpg

2008 - 2016

*******************

SAN FRANCISCO TRIBAL ART SHOW

2012

Photo Sam Singer

21657_10151294844125948_106931712_n.jpg

22291_10151294843220948_698505064_n.jpg

44549_10151294843125948_510150364_n.jpg

148167_10151294840970948_2024188473_n.jpg

149799_10151294841430948_2017956348_n.jpg

**************************************

*******************************************

EXHIBITION OF THE PAST

***********************************************

VOYAGE IN MONGOLIA

NEPAL MASK NEPALESE HIMALAYAN TIBETAN AFRICAN ART TRIBAL ARTS PREMIERS PRIMITIVE.jpg

VOYAGE IN MONGOLIA

WAS THE TITLE OF THE

2003's

EXHIBITION

AT

MUSEE  INTERNATIONAL DU CARNAVAL ET DU MASQUE

 of BINCHE

devoted

to the Art of  Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Népal, Bouthan, Tibet,  Mongolie, with items from  the  

Musée International du Carnaval et du Masque (M.I.C.M.), and  the Etnografisch Museum of Antwerpen. Nepalese pieces 

from the Collection of Eric Chazot (Paris)

 

SEE MORE ON

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2010/05/13/ka...

RELATED WORDS

 

20 cm Collection Alain Bovis Wood Arnaud d'Hauterives Arunachal Pradesh Bacot Bernard de Watteville Bhoutan Bois et poils 

Bois polychrome Brussels Bruxelles Wood Buddhist chamaniques CITIPATI cm Ancienne collection cm Collection Michel cm 

Collection particulière cm Courtesy Galerie cm Galerie cm Le Toit cm Private collection cm Région cm Renzo Freschi 

Collection François Pannier Collection Gustavo Gili Collection Sylvie Sauvenière Courtesy Galerie Alain dance Dolpo 

Dominique Blanc exhibition festival François Pannier Collection Freschi Oriental Art Galerie Alain Bovis Galerie Le Toit 

H 28 cm Himachal Pradesh Himalayan Himalayan masks Himalayas hindou Jacques Bacot Jacques Kerchache Kathmandu KIENGPA 

KRODHA Liliane Durand-Dessert Collection Marc Petit masked masked dances masks Masques de l'Himalaya Michel and Liliane 

Michel et Liliane Milan Wood Monde Gallery Collection Musée Asiatica Népal Newar papier-mâché Patrick Grimaud Polychromatic

wood Primitive Népal religious Renzo Freschi Oriental same Smithsonian Institution Sylvie Sauvenière Collection Tibet Toit

du Monde Wood and hair

§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§

§§§§§§§§

§

12/02/2012

Panneaux de palanquins de mariage SANTAL ARTS PREMIERS SANTHAL PARGANAS PEOPLE CARVED WOODEN PANELS OF THE WEDDING (LITTERS) PALKEE

dyn001_original_680_512_pjpeg_2592525_e0aba2c321c57b852aa360899dea390c.jpg

SANTAL PARGANAS PEOPLE CARVED WOODEN PANELS OF THE WEDDING (LITTERS) PALKEE 

PHOTO COURTESY

OF

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS PRIMITIVE ART

COLLECTION

BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be

ALL RIGHTS RESEVED

 

dyn001_original_680_166_pjpeg_2592525_4de38d4c190a4a9a7e8fb6e9a3e2863c.jpg

dyn001_original_680_512_pjpeg_2592525_2f65ee38270d388b2f23effd632f4b08.jpg

dyn001_original_680_377_pjpeg_2592525_e787b38bb5fb314f778b62b05ec45b2b.jpg

dyn001_original_680_458_pjpeg_2592525_463df361099ea425fb2dbc994bdafd15.jpg

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS 

ALL

RIGHTS

RESERVED

About the Santal Banam see more on:

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6109784/14-dhodr...

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6241521/art-et-musique-d... 

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6250339/art-et-musique-d... 

http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/

About the Santal panels see more on:

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6221941/panneaux-de-pala...

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7109086/santal-p...

About the Santal flutes see more on:

 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6163132/4-tribal... .

About the Santal painted scrolls from Hervé Pedriolle collection  see more on:

http://santalparganas.blogspot.com/

About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing  by Mr Onkar Prasad  on:

http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01014.htm .

About the carved Santal doors see more on:

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/5546402/portes-santal--o...

 

 §§§

§§

§

 

17/12/2011

SANTAL TRIBAL ART AND CULTURE: FOLKLORE OF THE SANTAL PARGANAS HENRY BOMPAS OF THE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE London 1909

ABOUT THE TRIBAL ARTS OF 

THE

SANTAL PEOPLE

IN COLLABORATION WITH

SANZA ART PREMIERS

BRUXELLES

in the past we have edited an interesting resume

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2010/02/01/tribal-arts-of-the-santal-people-the-tribal-art-of-middle-in.html

It will be now important to edit more informations

around

the folklore of this

ethnic group

The base of this work it will be an old text

FOLKLORE OF THE SANTAL PARGANAS

BY

CECIL HENRY BOMPAS

LONDON

1909

FOR THE SANTAL GLOSSARY AND RESUMED CHAPTERS OF THE TEXT 

SEE MORE ON

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2011/12/18/sa...

 

2 (2).jpg

Photos from  the book :Sketches from  Santalistan

by M.A. Pederson Minneapolis 1913

 

5.jpg

The Santals are a Munda tribe  branch of that
aboriginal groups which probably entered in  India from
the North East. At the begin of the last century  they have inhabited the
Eastern outskirts of the Chutia Nagpore plateau.
Originally hunters and dwellers in the jungle they become
 agriculturists.
Other representatives of the race are the Mundas and Hos.

 

8 (2).jpg

According the Author, their orginal social organization was  very complete ; each village had  its headman or MANJHI, with his assistant the PARANIK;
the JOGMANGHI was  is charged with the supervision of the
morals of the young men and women ; the NAEKE was
the village priest, the GODET was  the village constable.
Over a group of villages was  the PARGANA or tribal chief.
The Santals were divided into exogamous septs— originally
twelve in number, and their social observances were
complex.

Their religion was animistic, spirits BONGAS were considereted everywhere
around them : the spirits of their ANCESTORS, the
spirit of the HOUSE, the spirit dwelling in the patch of
primeval forest preserved in each village. Every hill
tree and rock may had its spirit. These spirits were
propitiated by elaborate ceremonies and sacrifices which
generally terminate in dances, and the drinking of rice beer.
The Santal Parganas was a district 4800 sq. miles in
I area, lying about 150 miles north of Calcutta, and was
formed into a separate administration after the Santals
had risen in rebellion in 1856.

The stories and legends of the book were translated and
collected by the Rev, O. Bodding, D.D. of
the Scandinavian Mission to the Santals.

To be sure that neither language nor ideas should in
any way be influenced by contact with a European mind
he arranged for most of them to be writtea out in Santali,
principally by a Christian convert named Sagram Murmu,
in the first years of the 1900's living  at Mohulpahari in the Santal Parganas.

The Henry Bompas translation  is very
literal, and the stories have  an interest as showing the way in which the Santal
people look at things. The Santals were great story tellers;
the old folk of the village gathered the young people round
them in the evening and told them stories, and the men
when watching the crops on the threshing floor will often
sit up all night telling stories.

There was however, no doubt in the Author that also  at the his time
the knowledge of these stories was tending to die out.

Bompas classified the stories in this way:
stories of a general character; stories relating to
animals;  stories which were scarcely folklore
but linked with anecdotes relating to Santal life ; stories
relating to the dealings of bojigas and men.
Then he reported  some legends and traditions, and few notes relating
to tribal customs.

 

151.jpg

It will be interesting to edit a resume of some of these stories and legends

About the Santal Tribal Arts

more on

About the Santal Banam see more on:
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6109784/14-dhodr...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6241521/art-et-musique-d...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6250339/art-et-musique-d...
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/
About the Santal panels see more on:
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6221941/panneaux-de-pala...
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7109086/santal-p...
About the Santal flutes see more on:
 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6163132/4-tribal... .
About the Santal painted scrolls from Hervé Pedriolle collection  see more on:
http://santalparganas.blogspot.com/
About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing  by Mr Onkar Prasad  on:
http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01014.htm .
About the carved Santal doors see more on:
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/5546402/portes-santal--o...

§§§

§

.

26/10/2009

TRIBAL ART OF THE SANTAL PEOPLE OF BIHAR, ORISSA, WEST BENGALA. Tribal Art Fair 2009 Amsterdam Africa Oceania Asia

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

4092378806[1].jpg

2009

***********************

TRIBAL ART OF THE SANTAL PEOPLE OF BIHAR ORISSA WEST BENGALA

dyn003_original_568_454_jpeg_2638188_973dfa8fa80f9865bdd23bc2fb23c8c1[1]

Text by Ethnoflorence photo and pieces from Ethnoflorence Indian and Himalayan Folk and Tribal Art, Art Premiers Art Primitive Collection Bruxelles.

Links from Ethnoflorence Indian and Himalayan Folk and Tribal Art, Art Premiers Art Primitive Collection Bruxelles, Hervé Pedriolle Collection, IGCNA Org, Tribal Art the World of Tribal Art magazine (for the details please scroll dawn).

db 4

In assenza di cataloghi, provenienze, studi etnografici, esibizioni temporanee o permanenti, parlare dell'arte dei Santal people del Bihar, Orissa, West Bengala,  è qualcosa di estremamente arduo.
In un 'epoca in cui anche le arti premiers si sono asservite alle logiche del mercato globale, una piccola produzione artistica di questo tipo sembra non avere spazio;  perché pubblicare un catalogo o finanziare una mostra quando poi il Mercato non se ne può avvantaggiare? E' una questione di numeri... che hanno il colore dei soldi. Meglio  continuare a pubblicizzare sempre  le stesse collezioni Major di Arts Premiers, il ritorno in termini di Pubblicazione/Provenienza assicurerà un certo e già calcolato appeal da esibire in Aste e Gallerie  perpetuando così un Mercato sempre più alla ricerca di chimere  e certezze...e nel frattempo infestato da cinquanta anni da migliaia di oggetti 100% fake.

dyn003_original_435_527_jpeg_2638188_b2ed9717c32b867b298978c2f4fc3257[1]


Allorché furono intrapresi i primi studi sul terreno l'antica tradizione culturale dei Santal era già entrata in una fase di  rapido e repentino  declino.

Negli anni 90's durante l'inaugurazione di una mostra a Cannes chez le Musee de la Castree il collezionista ed artista nizzardo Fernandez Arman davanti ad un vecchio liuto antropomorfo, recente acquisizione del Museo, ebbe a commentare "..venant du Santal, nom en soi, evocatour. Sa presence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture attire notre regard au fond du sien. C'est bien ici l'example d'un objet d'artisanat, ecchapant a son usage pour acceder a l'intemporal"

E come meravigliarsi di questa definizione, i liuti monocorde dei Santal , dhodro banam, sono robuste sculture antropomorfe , intagliate nel  legno gaulico , connotate da sontuose  patine color mogano, considerate dai loro stessi artefici alla stregua di esseri viventi, latori di poteri magici, strumenti mediatici che connettono il mondo visibile con il soprannaturale.

La storia dell' origine dei Banam (che tradotto significa corpo) affonda le sue radici in un arcaico passato fatto di incorrotte tradizioni orali perpetuate di generazione in generazione. Un'origine che affonda la sua nascita nella mitologia dei Santal People. Nel sacrificio di una giovane sorella, nella compassione di un giovane fratello, nella metamorfosi mistica dei resti della prima in un albero di gaulic ... da  un ramo del quale nascerà il primo mitico Banam. Uno strumento che riproduce un suono simile a quello degli esseri umani.

Sui peculiari  elementi strutturali di questo strumento 'rituale', imperniati nel riassumere le varie parti anatomiche del corpo umano e nell'attribuzione a ciascuna di esse di elementi naturali basilari , recepiti anche dalla mitologia dei Santal,(aria, terra, fuoco etc) hanno investigato insigni musicologi indiani; personalmente a queste accademiche e poco evocative descrizioni preferisco le poche righe che Ms Stella Kramrisch dedicò ai Banam nel suo catalogo " Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and village" Philadelphia 1968 ".The ... Santal ... carve their one-stringed lutes ... sometimes in the shape of woman ... transfiguring the resonance of the instrument into rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by the simplifications and distortions demanded by the shape of the instrument. The prophetic head with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the tuning keys as a kind of  ear-ornament, carried aloft on a neck of ordinate lenght, is a noble mask. Through its thin lipped mouth a god may speak - as he does through the  dance mask of another tribe, the Bhuiya...Arms and hands closely hug the curved plane of the sounding-box body whose firmness is enhanced visually by the broad collar of the necklace....Sound and mask, the prophetic voice which speaks through mask and instrument, link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation of the numinous." 

Quasi una funzione oracolare quella che ci suggerisce il testo, latrice di profezie e divinazioni propiziatorie, utili in un contesto rurale dominato da clans patriarcali nei quali l'elemento musicale svolge un importante ruolo non soltanto culturale ma anche rituale, connesso con la fertilità delle messi, intercalato da danze da tenersi prima e dopo la stagione delle pioggie e tra la semina ed il raccolto. Danze rituali nelle quali donne abbigliate in Sari sono accompagnate da gruppi  di musicisti.

Da un punto di vista iconografico i suddetti gruppi di danzatrici si ritrovano rappresentati sia nei carved tops dei Santal Banam che intagliate ad altorilievo nei pannelli delle loro lettighe nuziali. Anche la celebrazione del matrimonio è pervaso da precise ritualità e importanti funzioni sociali, non ultima quella di legare tra loro i vari clans patriarcali. Circa la funzione rituale della lettiga nuziale Ms Stella Kramrisch ricorda come "...when a Santal crafsman begins his work on the litter,  a pair of pigeons is sacrificed ... when the litter is completed and its owener taken possession two more pigeons are part of anoher sacrifice, ... the activity of carving is part of the marriage rite, as it the procession of the marriage litter...". Lo stile iconografico di questi pannelli è connotato da un estrema, solenne e  monumentale definizione stilistica delle figure, scolpite sia frontalmente che di profilo, parafrasando Ms Stella Kramrisch "...somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs...". 

Tra i temi 'trattati' in questi pannelli istoriati, oltre alle già succitate danze rituali propiziatorie, si annoverano le fasi del matrimonio stesso, cerimonie locali,  scene di vita quotidiana, i miti di creazione dei Santal e dei relativi 12 Clans, scene di guerra celebrative della ribellione del 1855 (Santal Hul).

Tra il Febbraio ed il Maggio 2007 si è tenuta al Crockerart Museum di Sacramento (CA) la prima mostra in occidente dedicata a questi rari ma splendidi pannelli istoriati dal titolo: Palkee: Wedding Conveyances of North India. http://www.crockerartmuseum.org/exhibitions/exhib_pages/P...

Sul mercato di Katmandu sono apparse ormai da anni 'povere' imitazioni dei pannelli originali, scolpite su vecchie assi si connotano per un stile approssimativo e la totale assenza di patina.

dyn006_original_575_505_pjpeg_2638188_24ab868aed183f004423b4171f72a9ba[1]

About the Santal Banam see more on:

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6109784/14-dhodr...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6241521/art-et-musique-d...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6250339/art-et-musique-d...
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/

About the Santal panels see more on:

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6221941/panneaux-de-pala...
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7109086/santal-p...

About the Santal flutes see more on:

 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6163132/4-tribal... .

About the Santal painted scrolls from Hervé Pedriolle collection  see more on:

http://santalparganas.blogspot.com/

About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing  by Mr Onkar Prasad  on:

http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01014.htm .

About the carved Santal doors see more on:

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/5546402/portes-santal--o...

 

 TRIBAL ART FAIR AMSTERDAM 2009 AFRICA OCEANIA ASIA


Over 2000 exclusive objects from Oceania, Africa, Indonesia, China, Japan, Tibet and Laos, will come together at what is TAF Amsterdam 2009. The exhibition comprises jewellery and sculptures, but also textiles, masks, implements and furniture. Special pieces from far-away countries. In the last weekend of October they are to be seen and purchased in Amsterdam, at the seventh edition of TAF Amsterdam.

www.http://www.tribal-art-fair.nl/