28/12/2014

Western Tibet The sacred country of Hindus and Buddhist

ETHNOFLORENCE

N. 855

BOOK OF THE WEEK

Western Tibet

and

The British Bordeland

The sacred country of Hindus and Buddhist

by

Charles A.Sherring

London

Edward Arnold

1906

 1 TIBETAN MASKED DANCERS.gif

Tibetan Masked Dancers

 2 TIBETAN DANCERS WEARING MASKS.gif

Tibetan Dancers wearing Masks

 3 TIBETAN MASKS.gif

Tibetan Dancers

 4.gif

Note the drum and the mask in foreground

 5.gif

Bhotia Women

 7.gif

The Chum or Rani, wife of the three brothers

 8.gif

A Tibetan wedding: The Bride

 9.gif

A Tibetan: The Bridegroom

 10.gif

Tibetan Charm, Jug, Bell

 11.gif

 12.gif

 13.gif

 14.gif

 15.gif

 16.gif

 17.gif

18.gif

19.gif

***********

*****

*

MASK OF THE DAY

FUNGUS RAI MASKS

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS COLLECTION

BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/archive/2007/12/21/art-tribal...

 

fungus rai mask (4).jpg

 

 

fungus rai mask (1).jpg

 

 

fungus rai mask (2).jpg

fungus rai mask (3).jpg

fungus rai mask (5).jpg

19/07/2012

ARTE TRIBALE DEI SANTAL DHODRO BANAM

ARTE TRIBALE DEI SANTAL

(english and italian version)

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS

*

Questa pagina non sarebbe stata realizzabile senza il prezioso contributo di materiale fotorafico da parte di:

This page could not be possible 

without the precious contribute

of  pictures

by

COLLECTION MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES  © PHOTO CLAUDE GERMAIN

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

http://www.nepaltribalart.com/index.asp?p=65

ROBERT BRUNDAGE PETALUMA CA

http://www.artyeti.com/

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/

FREDERIC ROND PARIS

http://www.indianheritage.biz/

HERVE PERDIOLLE PARIS

http://herveperdriollecv.blogspot.com/

MORDACCI  COLLECTION

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/a-m-collection-all-ri...

SANATAN KAVADIYA NEW DELHI

http://www.tribalartsindia.com/

RICHARD LAIR

and text 

by

ELIO REVERA BRESCIA

http://artidellemaninere.forumattivo.it/f8-love-driven-ch...

ETHNOFLORENCE

*******

An online

vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

ON

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

*****

Mus+®e de la Castre_Cannes_1991.21.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

"...une vièle Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, évocateur. 

Sa présence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. 

Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  

C'est bien ici l'exemple d'un objet  d'artisanat, échappant  à son usage pour accéder à l'intemporel".

Pierre  Fernandez   Arman

on  

"Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d'Aquisitions d'Art Primitif

du

Musée de la Castre" 

Cannes

l.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Perché ci circondiamo di bellezza? E perché questo circondarci non ci ha mai appagato, noi uomini, di ogni dove e di ogni tempo? Per una semplice ed insieme cogente motivazione: perché ne abbiamo bisogno!

Guardo questo oggetto che cari amici hanno avuto l’ardire di porre sotto i miei occhi; l’ardire, perché conoscono la mia limitata cultura ed il mio sconfinato amore per le produzioni artistiche di un altro continente.

Ma la loro è una sfida vinta in partenza: questa straordinaria creazione, l’immagine di questa fanciulla dai seni puntuti e da un’ incredibile quanto armoniosa corolla, mi ha conquistato al primo sguardo.

Non ha importanza cosa sia.

Io ne ammiro le purissime forme, ancestrali, evocative, ardite e stupefacenti: ed i miei sensi sono appagati da quella Dea misteriosa e sublime….avita e sconosciuta: la dea della Bellezza che in ogni cultura ha ricevuto nomi diversi, ma dovunque ha lascito profondissima traccia di sé, col suo passo lieve ed incorporeo.

( Elio Revera, socioanalista)

Dhodro Banam_5 - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

I santal scolpirono i loro liuti antropomorfi, i Dhodro Banam, spesso nella forma di una donna, trasfigurando le risonance dell'istrumento nelle rotondità plastiche conosciute nella scultura Hindu reinterpretate al livello tribale attraverso la simplificazione  e distorsione domandata e dettata dalla particolare forma dello strumento.

The Santal

carved their one stringed lutes sometimes in the shape of  a woman,

transfigurating the resonance of the instrument into rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by simplifications and distortions demanded by the

shape of the instrument.

5.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

L'interpretazone che segue dello strumento effettuata da Stella Kramrisch è una delle più acute espresse in queto campo, e allo stesso tempo poetica.

The prophetic head with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the turning keyes as a kind of ear ornament, carried aloft on a neck of inordinate length,

is a noble mask.

Through its thin lipped mouth god may speak.

Il banam è considerato infatti un tramite tra l'umano ed il divino.

dyn007_original_680_606_pjpeg_2592525_3c4d9cdc1f07f7b2d46d9ac58b46f980.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Il suono dello strumento quasi emanazione del volto femminile diviene profetica voce.

Sound and mask, the prophetic voice which speaks through mask and instrument,

link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation of the numinous.

Resume from

Stella Kramrisch

(Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and Village)

6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Strumento inteso come medium punto di contatto tra il visbile e l'invisibile.

The Santals believe in the magical powers of this musical instrument, a medium between the human beings and the supernatural.

k.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

w.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Anatomia umana e iconografia del Banam.

The Banam

resume in its various parts the anatomy of an human being: head, ears, neck, chest and stomach. The string is the most important part of the instrument, because it unites the other parts of the liute together, it's considered as the breadth of the Banam.

Immagine 002

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

The Head (Bonok) of the instrument represents the Space.

eck (hatok) and chest (koram) are directly connected with the Respiration and represents the equivalent natural element of the Air.

The stomach (lac) represents the fire.

The ears (lutur) the ether.

The term banam means body and represents the earth.

12 (2).jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Mito orale che ci racconta della mitologica origine del Dhodro Banam.

One oral Myth of the Santal told us the mithologyc origin of the Dhrodo Banam

 

Once upon a time  lived an old couple.

 

They had seven sons and a daughter who was the youngest of all.

The sons used to go  hunting and the sister cooked meals for them.

Some time later the couple died.

All their sons and daughter came to a forest to live  in the same way as they used to live earlier, the sister cooked the meals and looked after the house while the seven brothers went hunting.

 

One day while their sister was cutting sin arak (leaf-vegetable), one of her fingers got cut, and the blood of the wound got mixed with the vegetable.

She cooked it and served it to her brothers after their return.

They found the vegetable delicious.

So they asked their sister how the vegetable became so tasty, and found that her blood had got mixed with it.

The eldest brother wondered that if her blood could make the food so delicious, how tasty would her flesh be.

So he decided to kill her and share her flesh with his brothers.

Her body was then cut in seven pieces and each brother received a piece.

Except the youngest brother, the other ate the sister's flesh, he went to a pond sadly with his share, the fish, the crab and all the other creatures of the place, seeing this asked him the reason of his sorrow.

The youngest brother narrated them the whole story, after that the creatures of the pond suggested him not to eat the flesh of his sister and instead to put it inside the mound of white ants.

Some year later, in the place grew  a huge guloic tree.

It started to grow beautifull flowers and a melodious sound was heard from the tree.

A jugi who often used to come to the tree for picking up flowers heard this melodious sound and remained astonished.

One day he decided to cut a brunch from the magic tree and with them he constructed the first  musical instrument the

DHODRO BANAM.

 

(Text resumed  from SANTHAL MUSIC Onkar Prasad 1985)

 

*************

 

Dancers, dressed with a Sari, analogous subject we can find   in  old photos of Elwin Verrier and  in the iconography of  some carved panels of the wedding palkee of the Santal Parganas tribe as well as of the Banam.

11.jpg

 (Photo Ethnoflorence)

Ancora Stella Kramrisch caratterizza la plastica iconografia di questi pannelli istoriati dei Santal, parte delle lettighe matrimoniali tipiche dell'etnia Parganas.

 

Il parallelo con i rilievi egiziani è molto sugestivo.

 

The narrative typical carving of the panels, in low profile,  it is characterized by human figures in combined front profile view, limbs at times overlapped in telling gestures and lively actions of spontaneously formed group, and are based roughly on one groundline in common, in a cursive notation of figures, human and animal, more valuable and surely less expert, but according to Stella Kramrisch somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs.

 

10.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

Seguono informazioni circa la lettiga matrimoniale e della loro iconografia.

 

DANCERS AND MUSICIANS

 

The Santal wedding  litter is called

 

 RAHI

 

and was made by tribal craftsmen themselves.

 

The RAHI was created with a certain amount of ceremony.

 

According to Verrier Elwin and Stella Kramrisch

 

 When work was started, two pigeons were sacrificed;

 

when it was completed the couple sat on it and were carried to the central Manjhithan where more pigeons or a goat were offered.

 

THE ACTIVITY OF CARVING WAS PART OF THE MARRIAGE    RITE,  AS    WAS THE PROCESSION     OF      THE  MARRIAGE  LITTER

 

The themes

 

The main subjects carved on the Rahi's panels are derived from the local ceremonies, such  as marriages, the Miths of the Santal creation, the totems devoted to the twelve Santal clans, the Santal Hul or Santali rebellion of 1855, and especially the everyday life scenes.

 

A part of these themes it's common with the carved top of the Banam.

 

dyn005_original_400_602_pjpeg_2592525_eb2cb763ec2b0a97b02d93581a669b50.jpg

 (Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

13.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

22.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

14.jpg

 (Photo Ethoflorence)

Dhodro Banam_1.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

The Santal

traditionally accompanied many of their dances with two kind of drums the Tamak' and the Tumdak' the kettle-drum 'nagara' and  the oboe 'shanai' These musical traditions are reflects on the Banam lutes and Rahi panels iconography where the dancers are seldom accompanied by musicians too

DSCN7107.JPG

(Picture from Tribal Art of Middle India 1951 by Verrier Elwin)

33.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

dyn001_original_680_512_pjpeg_2592525_e0aba2c321c57b852aa360899dea390c.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

dyn002_original_640_480_pjpeg_2638188_e87409b263c850806b5f490e5650536e.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

dyn010_original_680_456_pjpeg_2592525_2a94c19faf8d32e643b9c6e222f9ae77.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

dyn010_original_680_466_pjpeg_2592525_a7f8e7873eb96ed385b3629e65cad31d.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sometimes musicians and dancers are accompanied also by acrobatic perfomers.

135.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Animalia nella iconografia dei Santal del Bihar

HORSES HORSEMEN AND ELEPHANTS

Another quite common iconography that we can find on the Rahi Panels is linked with the presence of elephants, horses and horsemen. Sometimes these representations are  linked with the marriage procession. It's possible to find carved  a similar iconography also on the top of  the Banam

Dhodro Banam_6(back).jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

Above Exceptional iconography of a rider and horse on the back carved top of a banam lute

P1000174.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

17.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

39.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

P1000178.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A.M.)

DSCF3603.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

SACRO AND PROFANO

Questo pannello eccezzionale nella resa iconografica ci presenta una sorta di fusione iconografica tra elementi sacri a destra e profani a sinistra.

Caratteristica tipica della libera inventiva di queste popolazioni, comune anche alla plastica 'reinventata' di tutta l'arte popolare della regione himalayana.

Bicycle.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

A mix of subjects is the iconographic base of this very interesting panel

HUNTING SCENES

Scene di caccia

archetipi universali

1258560570.jpg

(Photo Courtesy A. M.)

4106938674.jpg

(Photo courtesy A. M.)

SANTAL HUL

La rivolta dei santal

148.jpg

(Photo  Ethnoflorence)

80.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

81.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

ANIMALIA AND EVERYDAY LIFE

Toddy Palm.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

Animals - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

Animals.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

1 (2).JPG

(Photo courtesy A.M.)

4125466665.jpg

 

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

*************

sketchesfromsant00pedeiala_0169.jpg

(Sketches from Santalistan, Pederson, Mathew A. 1913)

http://archive.org/details/sketchesfromsant00pede

Un altro strumento musicale della tradizione dei Santal è il flauto traverso, ne presentiamo qui alcuni molto interessanti con estremità in bronzo fuse a cera persa.

The flute

held an important role in the music tradition of the Santal people.

DSCF4677 - Copia.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

3 flutes.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

flutes6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

DSCF4677.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Two flutes of this particulary rich tipology are present also in the collection of the Musee de la Castre of Cannes.

 1992.16.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.16.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.17.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

1992.17.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

***********

CHADOR BADONI

Puppet small wodden idol

Definition from 

A vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

73924_171960832816631_100000081457478_594899_904374_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Khavadiya)

71761_171961089483272_100000081457478_594910_1082616_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

73844_171962069483174_100000081457478_594925_4013181_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171960996149948_100000081457478_594903_6726846_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171961002816614_100000081457478_594905_8328388_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy Sanatan Kavadiya)

puppets48.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

*****************

PITTURA MAGICA DEI SANTAL

JADUPATUA

jadu = magician ; patua –or chitrakar- = painter

Santal Parganas

State of Bihar, India

(Text and pictures courtesy of  Herve Perdiolle)

Patuas and Jadupatuas from Bihar

(Creation of the world 1980)

The Jadu Patuas are painters and story tellers and go from village to village carrying their painted scrolls made of paper sheets sewn together with a bamboo stick on each extremity.

Jadu means "Magician".

The themes they represent on the scrolls are  about a dozen . However, there is different interpretation for each theme. A Jadu Patua can, looking at one scroll, say different stories depending if his audience is Hindu, Muslim or Santal. This last ethnic group is the most important audience for the Jadu Patuas.

The Patuas live with the money that the villagers give them after listening to their stories. The fact that they are magicians give a special effect to their intervention because the villagers fear them.

One of the most revealing images of the Jadu Patuas' role (in the Santal community) is the

"Mritu pat"

or

"image of the deaths"

. When somebody dies in a village near the Jadu Patua's one, the "artist magician" visits the family of the dead with a small and simple image (about 3 x 2 inches) which is supposed to represent the dead in a simple way.

Only the late person's pupil is missing.

Showing this image to the family, the Jadu Patua tells the story evoking the suffering of the dead whose soul is still trapped in hell.

The family then gives an offering to the Jadu Patua in order for him to intervene. The ritual for the Magician painter consists then to paint the dead's pupil in order to free his soul.

The principles developed by the Jadu Patuas are :

the Baha's feast

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

a strange mixture of Hindu and Santal myths showing a lot of festivities where tribal dances, sacrifices and drinking sessions scenes are mixed;

the creation of the world

(Anonyme, Création du monde, 1990, couleurs végétales sur papier, 20x420 cm)

where we can see the first human couple being born from the coupling of a goose and a gande; the painting of Kali

lai scroll painting

(Anonyme, Kali pat, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 30x240 cm, collection privée.)

composed with 3 or 4 paper sheets only, showing Kali in her most terrifying aspects

and a lot of scrolls about Yama the god of hell (showing all the ill treatments, sometimes sexual, given by Yama and his servants to the dead who behaved badly during their lifetime).

It seems that the scarier the Jadu Patuas'style gets, the more highly he is regarded.

***

**

*

 

 

 

 

05/04/2012

TRIBAL ARTS OF THE SANTAL PEOPLE

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS

*

This page could not be possible 

without the precious contribute

of  pictures

by

COLLECTION MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES  © PHOTO CLAUDE GERMAIN

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

http://www.nepaltribalart.com/index.asp?p=65

ROBERT BRUNDAGE PETALUMA CA

http://www.artyeti.com/

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/

FREDERIC ROND PARIS

http://www.indianheritage.biz/

HERVE PERDIOLLE PARIS

http://herveperdriollecv.blogspot.com/

MORDACCI  COLLECTION

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/a-m-collection-all-ri...

SANATAN KAVADIYA NEW DELHI

http://www.tribalartsindia.com/

RICHARD LAIR

and text 

by

ELIO REVERA BRESCIA

http://artidellemaninere.forumattivo.it/f8-love-driven-ch...

ETHNOFLORENCE

*******

An online

vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

ON

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

*****

Mus+®e de la Castre_Cannes_1991.21.1.jpg

 

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

*

"...une vièle Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, évocateur. 

 

Sa présence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. 

 

Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  

 

C'est bien ici l'exemple d'un objet  d'artisanat, échappant  à son usage pour accéder à l'intemporel".

 

Pierre  Fernandez   Arman

on  

"Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d'Aquisitions d'Art Primitif

du

Musée de la Castre" 

Cannes

l.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Perché ci circondiamo di bellezza?

E perché questo circondarci non ci ha mai appagato, noi uomini, di ogni dove e di ogni tempo?

Per una semplice ed insieme cogente motivazione: perché ne abbiamo bisogno!

 

Guardo questo oggetto che cari amici hanno avuto l’ardire di porre sotto i miei occhi; l’ardire, perché conoscono la mia limitata cultura ed il mio sconfinato amore per le produzioni artistiche di un altro continente.

 

Ma la loro è una sfida vinta in partenza: questa straordinaria creazione, l’immagine di questa fanciulla dai seni puntuti e da un’ incredibile quanto armoniosa corolla, mi ha conquistato al primo sguardo.

 

Non ha importanza cosa sia.

 

Io ne ammiro le purissime forme, ancestrali, evocative, ardite e stupefacenti: ed i miei sensi sono appagati da quella Dea misteriosa e sublime….avita e sconosciuta: la dea della Bellezza che in ogni cultura ha ricevuto nomi diversi, ma dovunque ha lascito profondissima traccia di sé, col suo passo lieve ed incorporeo.

 ( Elio Revera, socioanalista)

 

Dhodro Banam_5 - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

The Santal

carved

their one stringed lutes sometimes in the shape of  a woman,

transfigurating the resonance of the instrument

into

rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by simplifications and distortions demanded by the

shape of the instrument.

 

5.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

The prophetic head

with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the turning keyes as a kind of ear ornament,

carried aloft on a neck of inordinate length,

is a noble mask.

Through its thin lipped mouth

a

god may speak.

 

dyn007_original_680_606_pjpeg_2592525_3c4d9cdc1f07f7b2d46d9ac58b46f980.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sound and mask,

the prophetic voice

which speaks through mask and instrument,

link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation

of the numinous.

Resume from

Stella Kramrisch

(Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and Village)

 

6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

The Santals

believe

in the magical powers of this musical instrument,

a medium between the human beings and the supernatural.

 

k.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

 

w.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

The Banam

resume

in its various parts the anatomy of an human being:

head, ears, neck, chest and stomach.

The string

is the most important part of the instrument,

because it unites the other parts of the liute together, it's considered as the

breadth

of the Banam.

 

Immagine 002

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

The Head (Bonok) of the instrument represents the Space.

Neck (hatok) and chest (koram) are directly connected with the Respiration and represents the equivalent natural element of the Air.

The stomach (lac) represents the fire.

The ears (lutur) the ether.

The term banam means body and represents the earth.
 

12 (2).jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)
 
One oral Myth of the Santal told us the mithologyc origin of the Dhrodo Banam
 
Once upon a time  lived an old couple.
They had seven sons and a daughter who was the youngest of all.
The sons used to go  hunting and the sister cooked meals for them.
Some time later the couple died.
All their sons and daughter came to a forest to live  in the same way as they used to live earlier, the sister cooked the meals and looked after the house while the seven brothers went hunting.
 
One day while their sister was cutting sin arak (leaf-vegetable), one of her fingers got cut, and the blood of the wound got mixed with the vegetable.
She cooked it and served it to her brothers after their return.
They found the vegetable delicious.
So they asked their sister how the vegetable became so tasty, and found that her blood had got mixed with it.
The eldest brother wondered that if her blood could make the food so delicious, how tasty would her flesh be.
So he decided to kill her and share her flesh with his brothers.
Her body was then cut in seven pieces and each brother received a piece.
Except the youngest brother, the other ate the sister's flesh, he went to a pond sadly with his share, the fish, the crab and all the other creatures of the place, seeing this asked him the reason of his sorrow.
The youngest brother narrated them the whole story, after that the creatures of the pond suggested him not to eat the flesh of his sister and instead to put it inside the mound of white ants.
Some year later, in the place grew  a huge guloic tree.
It started to grow beautifull flowers and a melodious sound was heard from the tree.
A jugi who often used to come to the tree for picking up flowers heard this melodious sound and remained astonished.
One day he decided to cut a brunch from the magic tree and with them he constructed the first  musical instrument the
DHODRO BANAM.
 
(Text resumed  from SANTHAL MUSIC Onkar Prasad 1985)
 
*************
 
Dancers, dressed with a Sari, analogous subject we can find   in  old photos of Elwin Verrier and  in the iconography of  some carved panels of the wedding palkee of the Santal Parganas tribe as well as of the Banam.
11.jpg

 (Photo Ethnoflorence)

The narrative typical carving of the panels, in low profile,  it is characterized by human figures in combined front profile view, limbs at times overlapped in telling gestures and lively actions of spontaneously formed group, and are based roughly on one groundline in common, in a cursive notation of figures, human and animal, more valuable and surely less expert, but according to Stella Kramrisch somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs.

10.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

DANCERS AND MUSICIANS

The Santal wedding  litter is called

 RAHI

and was made by tribal craftsmen themselves.

The RAHI was created with a certain amount of ceremony.

According to Verrier Elwin and Stella Kramrisch

 When work was started, two pigeons were sacrificed;

when it was completed the couple sat on it and were carried to the central Manjhithan where more pigeons or a goat were offered.

THE ACTIVITY OF CARVING WAS PART OF THE MARRIAGE    RITE,  AS    WAS THE PROCESSION     OF      THE  MARRIAGE  LITTER

The themes

The main subjects carved on the Rahi's panels are derived from the local ceremonies, such  as marriages, the Miths of the Santal creation, the totems devoted to the twelve Santal clans, the Santal Hul or Santali rebellion of 1855, and especially the everyday life scenes.

A part of these themes it's common with the carved top of the Banam.

 

  

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 (Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

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 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

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 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

14.jpg

 (Photo Ethoflorence)

Dhodro Banam_1.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

The Santal

traditionally accompanied many of their dances with two kind of drums the

Tamak' and the Tumdak'

the kettle-drum 'nagara'

and  the

oboe 'shanai'

These musical traditions are reflects on the Banam lutes and Rahi panels

iconography

where

the dancers

are seldom accompanied by musicians too

 

DSCN7107.JPG

(Picture from Tribal Art of Middle India 1951 by Verrier Elwin)

 

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(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

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(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

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(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

dyn010_original_680_456_pjpeg_2592525_2a94c19faf8d32e643b9c6e222f9ae77.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

dyn010_original_680_466_pjpeg_2592525_a7f8e7873eb96ed385b3629e65cad31d.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sometimes musicians and dancers are accompanied also by acrobatic perfomers.

135.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

HORSES HORSEMEN AND ELEPHANTS

Another quite common iconography that we can find on the Rahi Panels is linked with the presence of elephants, horses and horsemen.

Sometimes these representations are  linked with the marriage procession.

It's possible to find carved  a similar iconography also on the top of  the Banam

 

Dhodro Banam_6(back).jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

Above

Exceptional iconography of a rider and horse on

the back carved top of a banam lute.

P1000174.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

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(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

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(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

P1000178.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A.M.)

 

 

DSCF3603.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

SACRO AND PROFANO

 

Bicycle.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

A mix of subjects is the iconographic base of this very interesting panel

HUNTING SCENES

1258560570.jpg

(Photo Courtesy A. M.)

 

4106938674.jpg

(Photo courtesy A. M.)

SANTAL HUL

 

148.jpg

(Photo  Ethnoflorence)

 

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(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

81.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

ANIMALIA AND EVERYDAY LIFE

 

Toddy Palm.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

1 (2).JPG

(Photo courtesy A.M.)

 

4125466665.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

*************

 

sketchesfromsant00pedeiala_0169.jpg

(Sketches from Santalistan, Pederson, Mathew A. 1913)

http://archive.org/details/sketchesfromsant00pede

 

The flute

held an important role in the music tradition of the Santal people.

DSCF4677 - Copia.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

3 flutes.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

flutes6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

DSCF4677.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Two flutes

of this particulary rich tipology are present also in the collection of the Musee de la Castre of Cannes.

 1992.16.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.16.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.17.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

1992.17.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

***********

CHADOR BADONI

 

Puppet small wodden idol

 

Definition from 

A vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

 

73924_171960832816631_100000081457478_594899_904374_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Khavadiya)

71761_171961089483272_100000081457478_594910_1082616_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

73844_171962069483174_100000081457478_594925_4013181_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171960996149948_100000081457478_594903_6726846_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171961002816614_100000081457478_594905_8328388_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy Sanatan Kavadiya)

 

puppets48.jpg

 

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

*****************

JADUPATUA

jadu = magician ; patua –or chitrakar- = painter

Santal Parganas

State of Bihar, India

(Text and pictures courtesy of  Herve Perdiolle)

 

 

Patuas and Jadupatuas from Bihar

(Creation of the world 1980)

 

The Jadu Patuas are painters and story tellers and go from village to village carrying their painted scrolls made of paper sheets sewn together with a bamboo stick on each extremity.

Jadu means "Magician".

The themes they represent on the scrolls are  about a dozen . However, there is different interpretation for each theme. A Jadu Patua can, looking at one scroll, say different stories depending if his audience is Hindu, Muslim or Santal. This last ethnic group is the most important audience for the Jadu Patuas.

 

The Patuas live with the money that the villagers give them after listening to their stories. The fact that they are magicians give a special effect to their intervention because the villagers fear them.

 

One of the most revealing images of the Jadu Patuas' role (in the Santal community) is the

 

"Mritu pat"

 

or

 

"image of the deaths"

 

. When somebody dies in a village near the Jadu Patua's one, the "artist magician" visits the family of the dead with a small and simple image (about 3 x 2 inches) which is supposed to represent the dead in a simple way.

 

Only the late person's pupil is missing.

 

Showing this image to the family, the Jadu Patua tells the story evoking the suffering of the dead whose soul is still trapped in hell.

 

The family then gives an offering to the Jadu Patua in order for him to intervene. The ritual for the Magician painter consists then to paint the dead's pupil in order to free his soul.

 

The principles developed by the Jadu Patuas are :

 

the Baha's feast

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

a strange mixture of Hindu and Santal myths showing a lot of festivities where tribal dances, sacrifices and drinking sessions scenes are mixed;

 

the creation of the world

(Anonyme, Création du monde, 1990, couleurs végétales sur papier, 20x420 cm)

where we can see the first human couple being born from the coupling of a goose and a gande;

 

the painting of Kali

lai scroll painting

(Anonyme, Kali pat, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 30x240 cm, collection privée.)

composed with 3 or 4 paper sheets only, showing Kali in her most terrifying aspects

 

and a lot of scrolls about

 

Yama

 

the god of hell (showing all the ill treatments, sometimes sexual, given by Yama and his servants to the dead who behaved badly during their lifetime).

 

It seems that the scarier the Jadu Patuas'style gets, the more highly he is regarded.

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

 

 

 

12/02/2012

Panneaux de palanquins de mariage SANTAL ARTS PREMIERS SANTHAL PARGANAS PEOPLE CARVED WOODEN PANELS OF THE WEDDING (LITTERS) PALKEE

dyn001_original_680_512_pjpeg_2592525_e0aba2c321c57b852aa360899dea390c.jpg

SANTAL PARGANAS PEOPLE CARVED WOODEN PANELS OF THE WEDDING (LITTERS) PALKEE 

PHOTO COURTESY

OF

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS PRIMITIVE ART

COLLECTION

BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be

ALL RIGHTS RESEVED

 

dyn001_original_680_166_pjpeg_2592525_4de38d4c190a4a9a7e8fb6e9a3e2863c.jpg

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dyn001_original_680_458_pjpeg_2592525_463df361099ea425fb2dbc994bdafd15.jpg

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS 

ALL

RIGHTS

RESERVED

About the Santal Banam see more on:

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6109784/14-dhodr...

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6241521/art-et-musique-d... 

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6250339/art-et-musique-d... 

http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/

About the Santal panels see more on:

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6221941/panneaux-de-pala...

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7109086/santal-p...

About the Santal flutes see more on:

 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6163132/4-tribal... .

About the Santal painted scrolls from Hervé Pedriolle collection  see more on:

http://santalparganas.blogspot.com/

About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing  by Mr Onkar Prasad  on:

http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01014.htm .

About the carved Santal doors see more on:

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/5546402/portes-santal--o...

 

 §§§

§§

§

 

17/12/2011

SANTAL TRIBAL ART AND CULTURE: FOLKLORE OF THE SANTAL PARGANAS HENRY BOMPAS OF THE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE London 1909

ABOUT THE TRIBAL ARTS OF 

THE

SANTAL PEOPLE

IN COLLABORATION WITH

SANZA ART PREMIERS

BRUXELLES

in the past we have edited an interesting resume

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2010/02/01/tribal-arts-of-the-santal-people-the-tribal-art-of-middle-in.html

It will be now important to edit more informations

around

the folklore of this

ethnic group

The base of this work it will be an old text

FOLKLORE OF THE SANTAL PARGANAS

BY

CECIL HENRY BOMPAS

LONDON

1909

FOR THE SANTAL GLOSSARY AND RESUMED CHAPTERS OF THE TEXT 

SEE MORE ON

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2011/12/18/sa...

 

2 (2).jpg

Photos from  the book :Sketches from  Santalistan

by M.A. Pederson Minneapolis 1913

 

5.jpg

The Santals are a Munda tribe  branch of that
aboriginal groups which probably entered in  India from
the North East. At the begin of the last century  they have inhabited the
Eastern outskirts of the Chutia Nagpore plateau.
Originally hunters and dwellers in the jungle they become
 agriculturists.
Other representatives of the race are the Mundas and Hos.

 

8 (2).jpg

According the Author, their orginal social organization was  very complete ; each village had  its headman or MANJHI, with his assistant the PARANIK;
the JOGMANGHI was  is charged with the supervision of the
morals of the young men and women ; the NAEKE was
the village priest, the GODET was  the village constable.
Over a group of villages was  the PARGANA or tribal chief.
The Santals were divided into exogamous septs— originally
twelve in number, and their social observances were
complex.

Their religion was animistic, spirits BONGAS were considereted everywhere
around them : the spirits of their ANCESTORS, the
spirit of the HOUSE, the spirit dwelling in the patch of
primeval forest preserved in each village. Every hill
tree and rock may had its spirit. These spirits were
propitiated by elaborate ceremonies and sacrifices which
generally terminate in dances, and the drinking of rice beer.
The Santal Parganas was a district 4800 sq. miles in
I area, lying about 150 miles north of Calcutta, and was
formed into a separate administration after the Santals
had risen in rebellion in 1856.

The stories and legends of the book were translated and
collected by the Rev, O. Bodding, D.D. of
the Scandinavian Mission to the Santals.

To be sure that neither language nor ideas should in
any way be influenced by contact with a European mind
he arranged for most of them to be writtea out in Santali,
principally by a Christian convert named Sagram Murmu,
in the first years of the 1900's living  at Mohulpahari in the Santal Parganas.

The Henry Bompas translation  is very
literal, and the stories have  an interest as showing the way in which the Santal
people look at things. The Santals were great story tellers;
the old folk of the village gathered the young people round
them in the evening and told them stories, and the men
when watching the crops on the threshing floor will often
sit up all night telling stories.

There was however, no doubt in the Author that also  at the his time
the knowledge of these stories was tending to die out.

Bompas classified the stories in this way:
stories of a general character; stories relating to
animals;  stories which were scarcely folklore
but linked with anecdotes relating to Santal life ; stories
relating to the dealings of bojigas and men.
Then he reported  some legends and traditions, and few notes relating
to tribal customs.

 

151.jpg

It will be interesting to edit a resume of some of these stories and legends

About the Santal Tribal Arts

more on

About the Santal Banam see more on:
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6109784/14-dhodr...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6241521/art-et-musique-d...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6250339/art-et-musique-d...
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/
About the Santal panels see more on:
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6221941/panneaux-de-pala...
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7109086/santal-p...
About the Santal flutes see more on:
 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6163132/4-tribal... .
About the Santal painted scrolls from Hervé Pedriolle collection  see more on:
http://santalparganas.blogspot.com/
About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing  by Mr Onkar Prasad  on:
http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01014.htm .
About the carved Santal doors see more on:
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/5546402/portes-santal--o...

§§§

§

.

07/08/2010

SANTAL FOLK ARTS A RESUME

TRIBAL ART OF THE SANTAL PEOPLE ETHNOFLORENCE INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBALA ARTS ARCHIVE

00126 santal tribal art.JPG
Links from Ethnoflorence Indian and Himalayan Folk and Tribal Art, Art Premiers Art Primitive Collection Bruxelles, Hervé Pedriolle Collection, IGCNA Org, Tribal Art the World of Tribal Art magazine.
 
About the Santal Banam see more on:
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6109784/14-dhodr...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6241521/art-et-musique-d...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6250339/art-et-musique-d...
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/
About the Santal panels see more on:
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6221941/panneaux-de-pala...
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7109086/santal-p...
About the Santal flutes see more on:
 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6163132/4-tribal... .
About the Santal painted scrolls from Hervé Pedriolle collection  see more on:
http://santalparganas.blogspot.com/
About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing  by Mr Onkar Prasad  on:
http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01014.htm .
About the carved Santal doors see more on:
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/5546402/portes-santal--o...
 

01/02/2010

TRIBAL ARTS OF THE SANTAL PEOPLE. THE TRIBAL ART OF MIDDLE INDIA, ELWIN VERRIER 1951. OTHER MASTERS OF INDIA CONTEMPORARY CREATIONS OF THE ADIVASIS MUSEE DU QUAY BRANLY, PARIS

-ABOUT THE SANTAL  ART  SEE THE EXHIBITION

Other Masters of India
contemporary creations of the Adivasis
Musee du Quai Branly , Paris.

From  30th march to 18th july 2010

Curators and advisor of the exhibition : Jyotindra Jain,  Jean-Pierre Mohen, Vikas Harish.

-THE TRIBAL ART OF MIDDLE INDIA, ELWIN VERRIER 1951.
 
AFTER 60 YEARS THE TRIBAL ART OF MIDDLE INDIA IS STILL NEGLETED AND UNKNOWN, A LOST WORLD.
 
SANTAL PEOPLE TRIBAL ART, A RESUME
 
PICTURES AND PIECES  from

-Ethnoflorence Indian and Himalayan Folk and Tribal Art http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7632624/tribal-a...

 -Art Premiers Art Primitive Collection Bruxelles http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/7633837/-tribal-arts-of-...

and with the kindly support of

-Detours de Monde web-site http://detoursdesmondes.typepad.com/dtours_des_mondes/201...

-Actufresh web site

http://www.actufresh.fr/2010/les-arts-des-santal.html 

001

Links from Ethnoflorence Indian and Himalayan Folk and Tribal Art, Art Premiers Art Primitive Collection Bruxelles, Hervé Pedriolle Collection, IGCNA Org, Tribal Art the World of Tribal Art magazine.
 
About the Santal Banam see more on:
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6109784/14-dhodr...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6241521/art-et-musique-d...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6250339/art-et-musique-d...
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/
About the Santal panels see more on:
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6221941/panneaux-de-pala...
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7109086/santal-p...
About the Santal flutes see more on:
 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6163132/4-tribal... .
About the Santal painted scrolls from Hervé Pedriolle collection  see more on:
http://santalparganas.blogspot.com/
About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing  by Mr Onkar Prasad  on:
http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01014.htm .
About the carved Santal doors see more on:
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/5546402/portes-santal--o...
 

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- THE VILLAGE GODS OF SOUTH INDIA, GRAMA DEVATAS see more on http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6493657/the-vill...

-"UNIVERSAL PRIMITIVE ARCHETIPIC SYMBOLS IN SOME ANCIENT NORTHERN  INDIAN HIGH RELIEF CARVED WINDOWS FROM SANATAN KHAVADYA COLLECTION NEW DHELI"

See more on http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7624683/universa...

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-LIST OF THE 229 ILLUSTRATIONS EDITED IN THE  ELWIN VERRIER SEMINAL CATALOGUE OF  THE 1951 'THE TRIBAL ART OF MIDDLE INDIA'  OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

1 DONGRIA KOND HAIR-PIN OF BRASS
2 MURIA GIRLS HAIR PINS OF CARVED WOOD
3 ELABORATE BRASS FILLET WORN BY BISON HORN MARIA WOMEN IN BASTAR
4 SAORA HAIR-PIN MADE OF BRASS
5 BAIGA HAIR ORNAMENT OF PLAITED REEDS
6 MURIA EAR-RING WITH PENDANT OF RED, WHITE AND BLUE BEADS
7 KUTTIA KOND BRASS HAIR-PINS
8 KUTTIA KOND DANCER, THEIR BODIES DECORATED WITH RED AND WHITE STRIPES
9 GADABA WOMAN WITH HAIR TIED IN DOOR-KNOCKER FASHION
10 SAORA WOMAN WEARING BRASS HAIR PIN AND SHOWING THE ENOMOUSLY DISTENDED LOBELS OF THE EAR, COMMON IN THIS TRIBE
11 MURIA BOY WITH CHARACTERISTIC BEAD HEAD BANDS AND OTHER DECORATIONS
12 BISON HORN MARIA GIRL WEARING BRASS FILLET AND BEAD NECKLACES
13 KUTTIA KOND YOUTH WEARING CAREFULLY MADE  BEAD NECKLACE
14 PHULA, A PARDHAN GIRL OF MANDLA DISCRICT, WEARING SILVER DHAR AND BINDIA
15 DHAR, AND BINDIA ORNAMENTS WORN BY GOND AND OTHER TRIBESMAN IN CHHATTISGARH AND NEIGHBOURING DISCRICTS
16 BONDO GIRL SHOWING THE MASS OF ORNAMENTS WORN BY WOMEN OF THIS TRIBE
17 MURIA NECKLACE AND EAR ORNAMENT FROM NAYANAR
18 PANGIA KOND GIRL SHOWING GREAT SIMPLICITY OF ADORNAMENT
19 SAORA GIRL OF LIABO
20 THANDA PULAYAN WOMAN WEARING LEAF-SKIRT
21 KUTTIA KOND GIRL REWINDING HER GIRDLE AFTER A BATH
22 PICTURE OF JUANG GIRLS
23 SPECIMENS OF BONDO CLOTH PREPARED FROM THE BARK OF THE SHRUB CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA MIXED WITH COLOURED COTTON YARN
24 A KUTTIA KOND GIRL WEARING A SKIRT OF PLANTAIN LEAVES
25 HILL MARIA YOUTHS IN DANCING DRESS: THE SKIRTS ARE A LONG STRIPS OF DRIED LEAF
26 BONDO WOMAN WEAVING BARK CLOTH ON A SMALL TENSION-LOOM
27 SAORA GIRL SPINNING YARN WHICH WILL LATER BE USED BY PANO WEAVERS TO MAKE HER SKIRT
28 TYPICAL GADABA WOMAN'S CLOTH OF THE AREA NEAR THE DUDMA FALLS, ORISSA
29 CHARCTERISTIC SAORA WOMAN'S SKIRT
30 PANGIA KOND GIRL PREPARING COTTON YARN ON A HAND-SPINDLE
31 GADABA WOMAN POUNDING A BALL OF SHREDDEB BARK PREPARATORY TO MAKING IT INTO YARN
32 MURIA MAGICIAN WEARING A WOMAN'S JACKET WITH DECORATION OF CROWRIES AND PEACOCK-FEATHERS
33 JHORIA MURIA ORNAMENT OF COWRIES, BRASS BELLS AND A BOAR'S TUSH
34 GONDHALI MINSTREL IN THE DANGS WEARING COWRIES IN HONOUR OF THE GODDESS BHAWANI, AND AS A PROTECTION AGAINST HOSTILE MAGIC
35 DHULIA DRUMMERS WEARING A COWRIE JACKET   AS A PROTECTION AGAINST THE MAGICAL DANGERS OF A WEDDING
36 MURIA YOUTH WITH COWRIE-DECORATED BAG AND ELABORATE COMB
37 LAMANA WOMAN PREPARES A FRINGE OF COWRIW SHELLS FOR A BISON HORN MARIA HEAD-DRESS
38 LAMANA HANDMADE BAG WITH COWRIE ATTACHMENTS
39 SAORA FRIEZE, SHOWING A SERIES OF COMBS, CUT ON A DOOR
40 BAIGA BAMBOO COMB, WITH COWRIES ATTACHED BY GRASS CORDS
41 CONVENTIONAL PATTERN OF A COMB CARVED ON THE DOOR OF A SAORA HOUSE
42 THREE KUTTIA KOND BAMBOO COMBS
43 BAIGA COMB WITH A HEAD BAND OF PLAITED GRASS
44 MURIA WOODEN COMB
45 MURIA WOODEN COMB WITH METAL FIGURES
46 MURIA WOODEN COMB: THE TWO HORNS ARE OF BEESWAX
47 MURIA WOODEN COMB
48 JUANG COMB CARVED FROM A BIT OF BAMBOO
49 JUANG COMB
50 JUANG COMB
51JUANG COMB OF BAMBOO, DECORATED WITH A TUFT OF SCARLET MINIVET FEATHERS
52 JUANG COMB OF HIGHLY POLISHED EBONY AND BAMBOO
53 JAUNG COMB OF BAMBOO
54 MURIA GIRL WEARING METAL BACKED WOODEN COMBS
55 MURIA YOUTH PREPARING WOOD TO MAKE A COMB
56 BISON HORN MARIA HEAD DRESS
57 DORLA MARIA WITH BUFFALO HORN HEAD DRESS, PHOTOGRAPHED AT A WEDDING BISON HORN MARIA YOUTH
58 BISON HORN MARIA YOUTH
59 DORLA MARIA WITH HEAD DRESS OF CHITAL STAG ANTLERS
60 BISON HORN MARIA YOUTHS PREPARING THEIR HEAD  DRESS FOR A DANCE
61 DHURWA DANCER WITH HEAD DRESS OF WOODEN HORNS
62 KUTTIA KOND DANCER WITH HEAD DRESS OF BRASS HORNS WITH A SMALL BELL ATTACHED AND A TUFT OF PEACOCK FEATHERS
63 KOND YOUTH WEARING THE BILL OF THE GREAT HORNBILL AS A FESTAL HEAD DRESS
64 BHATTRA DANCER AT HE DASSERA FESTIVAL WITH A HEAD DRESS OF RATHER GAUDY COLORED PAPER, BITS OF GLASS AND MICA AND BEADS
65 KUTTIA KOND TOBACCO TUBES
66 KUTTIA KOND TOBACCO TUBES OF DECORATED BAMBOO
67 MURIA TOBACCO CASE IN THE SHAPE OF A WHEEL
68 MURIA TOBACCO CASE SUPPOSED TO REPRESENT A TORTOISE
69 MURIA TOBACCO CASE  SUPPOSED TO REPRESENT A MANGO
70 MURIA TOBACCO CASE WITH DECORATIVE MOTIF OF A GIRL'S NIPPLES
71 MURIA TOBACCO CASE
72 MURIA TOBACCO CASE IN THE SHAPE OF A FISH, WITH SPIKE TO FIT INTO TURBAN
73 MURIA TOBACCO CASE WITH BELLS AND TUSHES AS DECORATION
74 MURIA TOBACCO CASE
75 IRON LAMPSTAND MADE BY LOCAL LOHAR BLACKSMITH FOR USE IN A MURIA MARRIAGE CEREMONY
76 MARRIAGE POST OF SEMI-ANTHROPOMORPHIC PATTERN CARVED BY GOND
77 DETAIL OF SANTAL MARRIAGE LITTER
78 GOND MARRIAGE POST, WITH RED AND BLUE DOTS ON A WHITE GROUND, GLASS TEETH AND COWRIE EYES
79 IRON LAMPSTAND FOR USE AT WEDDING OR OTHER CEREMONIAL OCCASIONS
80 IRON LAMPSTAND MADE BY AN AGARIA FOR USE IN A GOND MARRIAGE CEREMONY
81 DETAIL OF FIG 79
82 MURIA MARRIAGE CROWN MADE OF DATE PALM LEAVES AND WORN BY THE BRIDEGROOM
83 DETAIL OF FIG 84
84 SANTAL MARRIAGE LITTER
85 DETAIL OF ANOTHER SANTAL MARRIAGE LITTER
86 MARRIAGE CROWN MADE OF PALM LEAF AND COLOURED PAPER BY A DHIMAR FOR A GOND BRIDEGROOM
87  GOND REPRESENTATION OF DEMONS, PAINTED IN RED AND BLACK ON THE WHITE WALLS OF A HOUSE
88 DUMMY USED TO ENLIVEN PANGIA KOND FESTIVALS AND DANCERS
89 SAORA WOOD CARVING
90 SAORA WOOD CARVING OF A MAN AND A FISH
91 SAORA WOOD CARVING
92 THE ANGA PEN, CLAN GOD OF MURIAS AND MARIAS
93 BODRAHIN, A FANTASTIC FIGURE OF PARDHAN MYTOLOGY
94 DECORATED WOODEN HORSE WITH HORNS  OF THE BARKING DEER, USED FOR CEREMONIAL DANCES BY THE MURIAS OF BASTAR
95 GOND REPRESENTATION OF DEMONS
96 GOND REPRESENTATION OF DEMONS
97 SAORA WOODEN PILLAR ERECTED TO APPEASE THE GHOST OF AN ANCESTOR WHICH WAS BELIEVED TO BE INTERFERING WITH THE RAINFALL
98 BISON HORN MARIA PILLAR
99 - 100 KORKU MEMORIAL TABLETS CARVED IN TEAK
101 BISON HORN MARIA FUNERARY PILLAR
102 BISON HORN MARIA PILLAR, WITH DETAIL
103 SANTAL CARVING OF SIGMA ON A BANAM FIDDLE
104 STYLIZED COBRA, MODELLED BY A GOND IN CLAY
105 CARVED PANELS FROM BAIGA DOORS
106 PANELS OF A KUTTIA KOND DOOR
107 SANTAL DOOR CARVING OF A FISH
108  KOND DOOR CARVING A FUSH
109 GOND WALL DECORATION REPRESENTING FLYING BIRDS
110 SANTAL WALL DECORATION
111 TYPICAL GOND WALL DECORATION
112 PARDHAN WALL DECORATION
113 MURIA CARVING ON A PILLAR
114 CARVED PANELS OF BAIGA DOORS
115 CARVED PANELS OF BAIGA DOORS
116 PART OF A DOOR CARVED BY A PANO FOR KUTTIA KOND HOUSE
117 CHAIR  MADE BY THE HEADMAN OF A SAORIA PAHARIE VILLAGE
118 A WOODEN TIGER, EMBLEM OF AN URAON VILLAGE
119 WOODEN HORSE CARRIED AS A VILLAGE EMBLEM TO A JATRA
120 URAON EMBLEMS: WOODEN PLOUGH-BULLOCKS
121 URAON YOUTH RIDING ON A WOODEN ELEPHANT  THE EMBLEM OF HIS VILLAGE
122 REPRESENTATION OF DANCERS DRAWN ON THE WALL OF A GOND HOUSE
123 BHUIYA CARVING ON THE CENTRAL PILLAR OF A BOYS' DORMITORY
124 CENTRAL PILLAR OF A SAORA HOUSE
125 BHUIYA IMAGES OF A DIHURI (VILLAGE PRIEST) AND HIS WIFE ON THE VERANDA OF A BOY'S DORMITORY
126 CONVENTIONAL SAORA REPRESENTATION OF THE HUMAN FIGURE, CARVED ON A DOOR
127 JUANG VENUS CARVED ON THE DOOR OF A BOY'S DORMITORY
128 MURIA DOLLS ATTACHED TO WOODEN GONGS AND USED ON DANCING EXPEDITIONS
129 SAORA IMAGE OF THE MAIMED KITTUNG
130 SAORA IMAGES OF DEMIGODS, PATHA MUNDA AND GALBESUM, FROM A SHRINE
131 FEMALE FIGURE MADE BY A GOND TO REPRESENT THE SPIRIT OF A TANK
132 MODELLING, PROBABLY REPRESENTING DANCERS, ON THE WALL OF A GOND HOUSE
133 PARDHAN WALL DECORATION MODELLED IN MUD AND WHITENED WITH CLAY, SYMBOLIZED HUMAN FIGURE
134 DETAIL OF BISON HORN FUNERARY PILLAR, REPRESENTING A PARTY OF DANCERS REFRESHING THEMSELVES WITH RICE BEER
135 SHRINE OF SAHIBOSUM
136 WOODEN FIGURE OF SAHIBOSUM AND HIS WIFE
137 AN ITTAL DRAWING REPRESENTING SAHIBOSUM, MEHMASAHIBOSUM AND THEIR FRIENDS
138 FIGURE OF SAHIBOSUM
139 - 140 - 141 WOODEN FIGURES OF SAHIBOSUM AND HIS WIFE
142 SAORA CARVING ON A DOOR
143 SANTAL CARVING ON A DOOR
144 KOND CARVING ON A DOOR
145 KOND CARVING ON  A DOOR
146 JUANG CARVING ON A DOOR IN THE BOYS' DORMITORY
147  DETAIL OF FIG 148
148 CARVED SANTAL BANAM FIDDLE
149 PARDHAN WALL DCORATION
150 BAIGA MASKED DANCER ENGAGED IN A CHHERTA DANCE
151 BAIGA MASK PARODYING A HINDU ASCETIC
152-3 BHUYA MASKS WORN FOR DIVINATION BEFORE THE ANNUAL CEREMONIAL HUNT
154 MURIA MASKED DANCERS ON A CHAIT DANDAR EXPEDITION
155 MURIA JESTER CALLED THE NAKTA WEARING A MASK AT THE CHHETRA FESTIVAL
156 MASK USED BY THE MURIAS IN THE CHHERTA AND PUS KOLANG DANCES
157 KOND MASKS, USED A SUBSTITUTES FOR HUMAN SKULLS AT HE ANNUAL OR TRIENNIAL SACRIFICE (MERIAH) TO DHARNI PINNU, THE EARTH MOTHER
158 KUTTIA KOND PRIESTS SACRIFICING A FOWL ABOVE MASKS REPRESENTING HUMAN SKULLS
159 BAIGA PICTOGRAPHIC MASK
160 GOND MASK CARICATURING A HINDU ASCETIC
161 GOND RAKSHASA MASK
162 GOND PICTOGRAPHIC MASK
163 PARDHAN RAKSHASA MASK
164 BISON HORN MARIA MASKED DANCERS
165 SAORA WOOD CARVING
166 TWO PEACOCKS MODELLED IN CLAY ON A GRAIN BIN
167 CARVED PEACOCK USUALLY FOUND ON THE KURANRAJAN INSTRUMENTS
168 WOODEN PEACOCKS FROM THE SPIRES OF SADRU SHRINES
169 KOND CARVING  ON A DOOR
170 PEACOCKS CARVED ON THE DOOR OF A SAORA HOUSE
171 SANTAL CARVING OF A PEACOCK ON A DOOR
172 HILL SAORA SHAMAN DIVINING WITH THE HELP OF THE INSTRUMENT CALLED KURANRAJAN
173 LINTEL OF A DOOR IN A SAORA VILLAGE UNDER KOND INFLUENCE
174 WINGED ELEPHANTS, PROBABLY WITH A MYTHOLOGICAL REFERENCE, CARVED ON A BAIGA DOOR
176 SAORA WOOD CARVING
177 - 8CARVING ON THE DOOR OF A SAORA HOUSE
179 CARVING ON THE DOOR OF A BONDO HOUSE
180 CARVING ON THE DOOR OF A SAORA HOUSE
181 PANEL OF A KOND DOOR
182 DRAWING IN CHARCOAL, ON AN OLD CENSUS NUMBER BOARD
183 WOOD CARVING OF HUNTERS CARRYING HOMES A DEER, FROM A SANTAL MARRIAGE-LITTER
184 SANTAL WOOD CARVING
185 KOND WOOD CARVING
186 MURIA CARVING ON THE DOOR OF A HOUSE
187 KOND WOOD CARVING
188 HUNTING SCENE FROM THE SINGANPUR CAVE, RAIGARH
189 KOND WOOD CARVING
190 SAORA WOOD CARVING
191 SAORA WOOD CARVING
192 JUANG CARVING ON THE INNER DOOR OF A BOYS' DORMITORY, KEONJHAR
193 KUTTIA KOND WOODEN PILLAR ERECTED IN A HOUSE
194 WALL PAINTING FROM BHIMENJA PINNU
195 GRAIN BIN DECORATED WITH CONVENTIONAL DESIGNS IN HONOUR OF BHIMUL PINNU
196 WALL PAINTING ON THE VERANDA OF KIRESA KOND'S HOUSE
197  KOND PAINTINGS, IN WHITE ON A RED BACKGROUND, IN HONOUR OF BHIMUL PINNU
198 KOND PAINTINGS FOR BHIMUL PINNU
199 PANGIA KOND GIRL WITH TATOO MARKS, IN HONOUR OF BHIMUL PUNNU
200 KUTTIA KONDS PILLARS, A RELIC OF THE DAYS OF HUMAN SACRIFICE
204 GROUP OF PILLARS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MERIAH SACRIFICE AND IN HONOUR OF THE EARTH MOTHER
205 PAINTING OF RAWAN ON THE WALL OF A HINUIZED SAORA HOUSE
206 WALL DRAWING OF A CAR MADE AT A PATNULKARAN WEDDING
207 GAMALLA MUGGU PAINTNG, IN A GOLLA HOUSE, FOR THE PROPITIATION OF THE DEAD
208 GOND WALL PAINTING IN RED AND BLACK ON  A WHITE GROUND, REPRESENTING INCIDENTS FROM THE LIFE OF KRISHNA
209 A SAORA ARTIST (ITTALMARAN) AT WORK ON A PICTURE ON THE WALL OF  A HOUSE
210 SAORA FERTILITY PICTOGRAPH
211 SAORA FROM PANDUGUDA, GANJAM DISTRICT
212 SAORA DRAWING FROM THE HOUSE OF TISSANO AT TUMULU, GANJAM DISTRICT
213 SAORA PICTURE OF A SHRINE WITH PEACOCK WATCHMAN
214 SAORA PICTURE OF THE HILL ABODE OF THE GOD BORONGSUM
215 SAORA PICTURE OF THE HILL ABODE  OF KURTISUM
216 SAORA PICTURE OF THE HILL ABODE OF  BENASUM
217 SAORA PICTURE TO APPEASE THE DEAD
218 SAORA PICTURE TO DIVERT THE GHOST OF A MAN WHICH PESTERED THE UNHAPPY WIDOW
219 SAORA DRAWING IN HONOUR OF JALIYASUM
220 SAORA PICTURE FROM THE HOUSE OF DALIMO , A SHAMAN
221 SAORA REPRESENTATION OF A HUMAN FIGURE RIDING A BICYCLE
222 SAORA PICTURE ILLUSTRATING THE RELATIONS BETWEEN A SHAMAN AND HIS SPIRIT WIFE
223 SAORA SYMBOL OF THE SUN, UNDER THE NAME OF YUYUNGBOI
224 GROUP OF FIGURES PAINTED NEAR THOSE IN FIG 222
225 SAORA PICTURE FROM THE HOUSE OF GAMRU AT BORAISINGI, GANJAM DISTRICT
226 SAORA PICTURE TO AVERT DISEASE
227 ELABORATE PICTOGRAPH SHOWING THE TRAIN AND MOTOR CAR BY THE GHOST TRAVELS IN THE UNSEEN WORLD
228 SAORA DRAWING OF A MOTOR CAR
229 SAORA PICTURE FROM MANEBA, GANJAM DISTRICT

-ETHNOFLORENCE

A RESUME OF THE VERY EARLY MASKS EDITED ON ETHNOFLORENCE 

dyn009_original_240_320_pjpeg_2638188_09b5097b0eb28b4ffc72d0c44ad569b3[1]

SEE MORE ON

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7451908/indian-a...

dyn009_original_240_320_pjpeg_2638188_4ec91b3c4dba127303e57d09c3073847[1]

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7451908/indian-a...

dyn009_original_240_320_pjpeg_2638188_85aec1456892274ecaf581c3d94407c5[1]

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7451908/indian-a...

 

 

 

 

 

 

26/10/2009

TRIBAL ART OF THE SANTAL PEOPLE OF BIHAR, ORISSA, WEST BENGALA. Tribal Art Fair 2009 Amsterdam Africa Oceania Asia

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2009

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TRIBAL ART OF THE SANTAL PEOPLE OF BIHAR ORISSA WEST BENGALA

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Text by Ethnoflorence photo and pieces from Ethnoflorence Indian and Himalayan Folk and Tribal Art, Art Premiers Art Primitive Collection Bruxelles.

Links from Ethnoflorence Indian and Himalayan Folk and Tribal Art, Art Premiers Art Primitive Collection Bruxelles, Hervé Pedriolle Collection, IGCNA Org, Tribal Art the World of Tribal Art magazine (for the details please scroll dawn).

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In assenza di cataloghi, provenienze, studi etnografici, esibizioni temporanee o permanenti, parlare dell'arte dei Santal people del Bihar, Orissa, West Bengala,  è qualcosa di estremamente arduo.
In un 'epoca in cui anche le arti premiers si sono asservite alle logiche del mercato globale, una piccola produzione artistica di questo tipo sembra non avere spazio;  perché pubblicare un catalogo o finanziare una mostra quando poi il Mercato non se ne può avvantaggiare? E' una questione di numeri... che hanno il colore dei soldi. Meglio  continuare a pubblicizzare sempre  le stesse collezioni Major di Arts Premiers, il ritorno in termini di Pubblicazione/Provenienza assicurerà un certo e già calcolato appeal da esibire in Aste e Gallerie  perpetuando così un Mercato sempre più alla ricerca di chimere  e certezze...e nel frattempo infestato da cinquanta anni da migliaia di oggetti 100% fake.

dyn003_original_435_527_jpeg_2638188_b2ed9717c32b867b298978c2f4fc3257[1]


Allorché furono intrapresi i primi studi sul terreno l'antica tradizione culturale dei Santal era già entrata in una fase di  rapido e repentino  declino.

Negli anni 90's durante l'inaugurazione di una mostra a Cannes chez le Musee de la Castree il collezionista ed artista nizzardo Fernandez Arman davanti ad un vecchio liuto antropomorfo, recente acquisizione del Museo, ebbe a commentare "..venant du Santal, nom en soi, evocatour. Sa presence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture attire notre regard au fond du sien. C'est bien ici l'example d'un objet d'artisanat, ecchapant a son usage pour acceder a l'intemporal"

E come meravigliarsi di questa definizione, i liuti monocorde dei Santal , dhodro banam, sono robuste sculture antropomorfe , intagliate nel  legno gaulico , connotate da sontuose  patine color mogano, considerate dai loro stessi artefici alla stregua di esseri viventi, latori di poteri magici, strumenti mediatici che connettono il mondo visibile con il soprannaturale.

La storia dell' origine dei Banam (che tradotto significa corpo) affonda le sue radici in un arcaico passato fatto di incorrotte tradizioni orali perpetuate di generazione in generazione. Un'origine che affonda la sua nascita nella mitologia dei Santal People. Nel sacrificio di una giovane sorella, nella compassione di un giovane fratello, nella metamorfosi mistica dei resti della prima in un albero di gaulic ... da  un ramo del quale nascerà il primo mitico Banam. Uno strumento che riproduce un suono simile a quello degli esseri umani.

Sui peculiari  elementi strutturali di questo strumento 'rituale', imperniati nel riassumere le varie parti anatomiche del corpo umano e nell'attribuzione a ciascuna di esse di elementi naturali basilari , recepiti anche dalla mitologia dei Santal,(aria, terra, fuoco etc) hanno investigato insigni musicologi indiani; personalmente a queste accademiche e poco evocative descrizioni preferisco le poche righe che Ms Stella Kramrisch dedicò ai Banam nel suo catalogo " Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and village" Philadelphia 1968 ".The ... Santal ... carve their one-stringed lutes ... sometimes in the shape of woman ... transfiguring the resonance of the instrument into rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by the simplifications and distortions demanded by the shape of the instrument. The prophetic head with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the tuning keys as a kind of  ear-ornament, carried aloft on a neck of ordinate lenght, is a noble mask. Through its thin lipped mouth a god may speak - as he does through the  dance mask of another tribe, the Bhuiya...Arms and hands closely hug the curved plane of the sounding-box body whose firmness is enhanced visually by the broad collar of the necklace....Sound and mask, the prophetic voice which speaks through mask and instrument, link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation of the numinous." 

Quasi una funzione oracolare quella che ci suggerisce il testo, latrice di profezie e divinazioni propiziatorie, utili in un contesto rurale dominato da clans patriarcali nei quali l'elemento musicale svolge un importante ruolo non soltanto culturale ma anche rituale, connesso con la fertilità delle messi, intercalato da danze da tenersi prima e dopo la stagione delle pioggie e tra la semina ed il raccolto. Danze rituali nelle quali donne abbigliate in Sari sono accompagnate da gruppi  di musicisti.

Da un punto di vista iconografico i suddetti gruppi di danzatrici si ritrovano rappresentati sia nei carved tops dei Santal Banam che intagliate ad altorilievo nei pannelli delle loro lettighe nuziali. Anche la celebrazione del matrimonio è pervaso da precise ritualità e importanti funzioni sociali, non ultima quella di legare tra loro i vari clans patriarcali. Circa la funzione rituale della lettiga nuziale Ms Stella Kramrisch ricorda come "...when a Santal crafsman begins his work on the litter,  a pair of pigeons is sacrificed ... when the litter is completed and its owener taken possession two more pigeons are part of anoher sacrifice, ... the activity of carving is part of the marriage rite, as it the procession of the marriage litter...". Lo stile iconografico di questi pannelli è connotato da un estrema, solenne e  monumentale definizione stilistica delle figure, scolpite sia frontalmente che di profilo, parafrasando Ms Stella Kramrisch "...somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs...". 

Tra i temi 'trattati' in questi pannelli istoriati, oltre alle già succitate danze rituali propiziatorie, si annoverano le fasi del matrimonio stesso, cerimonie locali,  scene di vita quotidiana, i miti di creazione dei Santal e dei relativi 12 Clans, scene di guerra celebrative della ribellione del 1855 (Santal Hul).

Tra il Febbraio ed il Maggio 2007 si è tenuta al Crockerart Museum di Sacramento (CA) la prima mostra in occidente dedicata a questi rari ma splendidi pannelli istoriati dal titolo: Palkee: Wedding Conveyances of North India. http://www.crockerartmuseum.org/exhibitions/exhib_pages/P...

Sul mercato di Katmandu sono apparse ormai da anni 'povere' imitazioni dei pannelli originali, scolpite su vecchie assi si connotano per un stile approssimativo e la totale assenza di patina.

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About the Santal Banam see more on:

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6109784/14-dhodr...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6241521/art-et-musique-d...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6250339/art-et-musique-d...
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/

About the Santal panels see more on:

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6221941/panneaux-de-pala...
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7109086/santal-p...

About the Santal flutes see more on:

 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6163132/4-tribal... .

About the Santal painted scrolls from Hervé Pedriolle collection  see more on:

http://santalparganas.blogspot.com/

About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing  by Mr Onkar Prasad  on:

http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01014.htm .

About the carved Santal doors see more on:

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/5546402/portes-santal--o...

 

 TRIBAL ART FAIR AMSTERDAM 2009 AFRICA OCEANIA ASIA


Over 2000 exclusive objects from Oceania, Africa, Indonesia, China, Japan, Tibet and Laos, will come together at what is TAF Amsterdam 2009. The exhibition comprises jewellery and sculptures, but also textiles, masks, implements and furniture. Special pieces from far-away countries. In the last weekend of October they are to be seen and purchased in Amsterdam, at the seventh edition of TAF Amsterdam.

www.http://www.tribal-art-fair.nl/

 

 

 

01/08/2008

21 Dhodro Banam, Santal Banam, Santal People lutes, anthropomorphic lutes, Indian Tribal Art. With a writing of the French Artist Fernandez Arman 15 liuti tribali antropomorfi dei Santal del Nord India.

 ethnoflorence photo archive santal

"Santhal poetry is Santhal life; Santhal life is Santhal poetry"  (Archer W.G.  The Hill of Flutes: Life, Love and Poetry in Tribal India, New Delhi, S. Chand & Co (Pvt) Ltd 1974).

.

.ethnoflorence photo archive santal banam 3 f.a


About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing  by Mr Onkar Prasad  on http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01014.htm .

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About these  musical instruments see the interesting feature "The Lutes of the Santal" by Benght Fosshag on: http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/ .

ethnoflorence photo archive santal banam 5f. fr.v.dt.

Other  informations also on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santal_music and correlated links.

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Read also on "Instruments de Musique Des Santal et Des Ho" Francois Pannier Galerie Le Toit Du Monde (http://www.letoitdumonde.net/) , Imprimerie Union, Paris 1991.

ethnoflorence photo archive santal banam zoomph. det.

 About the Santal tribal  Art see also:  http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6268451/28-santa...  at the moment the first and  only full screen selection of  ancient  Santal wedding litter panels of the web.

ethnoflorence photo archive santal banam palkee det.

 and  http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6163132/4-tribal... .

An interesting selection of Santal Parganas Scroll paintings is edited by Hervé Pedriolle on http://santalparganas.blogspot.com/ .

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See also other Santal Banam of  the Arts Premiers - Primitive Art Collection of Bruxelles  on : http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6241521/art-et-musique-d... 

dhodro banam  santal 10d

and http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6250339/art-et-musique-d... ( important and famous the liute n. 10,  understanding  quality).

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A Santal banam  from the collection of the Ranchi Museum, Ranchi Jharkhand its  recently edited on the new and interesting web site of the National Consortium of Tribal Arts and Cultures http://www.tribalartsmuseums.org/nctac.html (online  exhibition - Musical instruments)

DP110972[1]

Banam of Metropolitan Museum of Art New York

Object Name
Dhodro Banam

Date
2nd half 19th century

Geography
India

Culture
Santal group of Munda people

Medium
Wood, hide, gut, metal

Dimensions
Overall: 18 x 15.9 x 89cm (7 1/16 x 6 1/4 x 35 1/16in.)

Credit Line
Purchase, Clara Mertens Bequest, in memory of André Mertens, 2004

Accession Number
2004.360

Immagine 001

Frontal view.  

Immagine 002

N1 Top frontal view.  Monumental Style of the Santal sculpture. The same style, iconography,  and  frontal monumentality that we can find in some of the oldest and beautifulst wedding panels of the Santal Parganas tribe.  For a style comparation see the unique group of 27 items edited by Ethnoflorence  http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6268451/28-santa... (work in progress).

See also on http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/f11.html and http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/f12.html .

Immagine 003

N1 3/4 Top detail.  Dark wood with red reflexes of patina, from gaulic tree. 

 The Santals believe in the magical powers of this musical instrument, a medium between the human beings and the supernatural.

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N1 Back side top detail.

The Banam resume in its various parts the anatomy of an human being: head, ears, neck, chest and stomach.

The string is the most important part of the instrument, because it unites the other parts of the liute together, it's considered as the breadth of the Banam.

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N1 Side A detail.

The Head (Bonok) of the instrument represents the Space. Neck (hatok) and chest (koram) are directly connected with the Respiration and represents the equivalent natural element of the Air. The stomach (lac) represents the fire. The ears (lutur) the ether. The term banam means body and represents the earth.

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N1 Carved box detail.

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N1 Lower frontal view.

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N1 Back view with traces of use and red patina.

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Back below view, interesting the detail of an old and original restauration of the lute (in the same wood of the lute).

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N 1 bis. Exceptional the museal quality of this artifact. Courtesy Arts Premiers Collection Bruxelles, the item is  edited ( photos 9 and 11 ) in the catalogue of the exhibition "Instruments des  Santal et des Ho", curated by Francois Pannier in Paris (may 17- June 8 1991). This ancient dhodro banam is of the same hand of another banam of the New Delhi Museum, collected by Elwin Verrier. Another banam of the same stylistic group was edited by Bengt Fossag in the feature "Le luth des Santal" on Art Tribal- Automne 1996 (Figure 9 page 66)

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N1 Bis. For a comparation see http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/f9.html .

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N1 bis Back top view.

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N1 bis detail view.

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N1 bis Exceptional  patina of the banam.

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N1 bis back side view.

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N2 Frontal view

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N2 Top view.  Three dancers, dressed with a Sari, analogous subject we can find again or in some old photos of Elwin Verrier that in some wedding panels of the Santal Parganas tribe. 

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Detail of a Santal parganas panel, the iconographic comparation it's evident. (Ethnoflorence Collection) more on http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6268451/28-santa... .

 About the exhibition :" Palkee: Wedding Conveyances of North India" at the Crocker Art Museum of Sacramento (216 O street, CA 95814 USA)  see  also the really interesting link:  http://www.crockerartmuseum.org/exhibitions/exhib_pages/P... .

 

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N2 3/4  Top view. The rigid frontal, really minimal but at the same time also geometrical (see the verticality style of the face) and monumental style of the Santal sculpture it's evident in this photo. This style remember me some works of Henry Moore of the 40's. The African plastic tribal styles influenced the western art of the vanguard at the beginning of the century; personally I think that the Indian tribal styles was at that time of the same equally interesting, did not have the lucky to stay in the right place (Paris) and in the right moment (first years of 900s).

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N2 3/4 top view detail side B.

"...un viele Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, evocatour. Sa presence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  C'est bien ici l'example d'un objet  d'artisanat, échappant a son usage pour acceder a l'intemporal".
Pierre Fernandez
   Arman - Armand (Nice November 17, 1928, NYC October 22 2005) on  ( "Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d'Aquisitions d'Art Primitif du Musée de la Castre" about an "viele sarangi - ethnie Santal, Nord Est de l'Inde" number Inv. 991.21.1. of the Cannes Museum (achat en 1991). The web-address of the Official Website of Arman is  www.armanstudio.com/ - 10k - 

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N2 Back side view detail.

To understand better the personality of Fernamdez Arman like artist  as well as tribal art collector  see the interesting exhibition catalogue "Africarmania: Arman et l'Afrique" (Pierre Nahon-Arman) http://www.ladifference.fr/fiches/livres/africarmania.htm...  or   www.amazon.ca/Africarmania-Arman-lAfrique-Pierre-Nahon/dp/2729114319 - 81k .

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N2 Frontal detail view.

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N2 Frontal detail view.

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N2 Another frontal detail view.

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N2 Back side view.

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N2 Interesting the detail of the fish, carved in a primitive style, on the lateral surface of the lute.

 

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2 bis.  Courtesy Arts Premiers Collection Bruxelles.

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2 bis. Dancers in  frontal and monumental posture. Courtesy Arts Premiers Collection Bruxelles.

 

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N 2bis Top back side view.

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N 2 bis Top frontal view detail.

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N2 bis Top back exceptional detailed view.


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 N2 bis Top back  detail view.

 

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N3 Frontal view.

 

A "Viele monocorde", Nom vernaculaire : "dhodro banam" , is in the Collection of Musée du Quai Branly of Paris  under the N° inventaire : 70.2007.48.1.  See more on http://www.culture.fr/recherche/?typeSearch=collection&am... .

Another interesting piece is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in NYC.

The National  Museum of New Delhi has a large collection of musical instruments, from folk to classic, one famous antropomorphic Santal banam of this collection was edited by Stella Kramrisch in "Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and Village". http://www.nationalmuseumindia.gov.in/collection.html

The piece that I prefer is the Dhodro Banam of the Musée de la Castre of Cannes.


Immagine 023

 

N3 Top view.

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N3 Top view detail.

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N3 Side A top view. The style of this sculpture on the top of the lute it's really primitive. Raiders are common also in the iconographic style of the Santal panels.

ethnoflorence photo archive santal palkee dt.

N3 Same subject in a Santal Parganas panels. http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6268451/28-santa...

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Side B top view.

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N3 Side B, interesting the antrophomorphic style of the lute.

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N3 Side B view detail.

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N4 Frontal view.

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N4 Top view detail. Dancers dressed with Sari. Interesting the primitive style of the face, minimal but really expressive

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N4 top side view. From the side view the geometric primitive and minimal  style of the carved face of one of the dancer, it's more clear ... really understanding.

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N4 3/4 Top side view.

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N4 Another frontal view.

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N.4  Primitive carving on the frontal surface of the lute.

 

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N4 bis Top frontal view. Courtesy Arts Premiers Collection Bruxelles.

 

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N4bis Top frontal view detail.

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 N4bis frontal  back and side view.

Immagine 035

N5 Frontal view of the carved couple on the top of the lute.

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 N5 Top frontal view detail.

Immagine 037N5 N5 3/4 top side A view detail.

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N5 Back top side view detail.

 

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N5 bis Top frontal view. Courtesy Sanza Art Premiers Collection Bruxelles.

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N5 Bis 3/4 back side view. See the stylistic detail of the hair and comapare it with the item n6.

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 N5 Bis Back, frontal and side view.

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N6 Frontal view. 

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N6 Frontal view top detail.

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N6 Top side A view.

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N6 Another side A detail view.

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N6 top back side view detail.

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N6 Frontal carved box view.

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N6 Frontal below view.

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N6 side view, exceptional dark-red patina.

Immagine 047

N6 Back side view.

Immagine 048

N7 exceptional and unique from an stylistic view point  antropomorphic lute of the Santal  with five figures carved on the top. 

 "...The Santal ... carve their one-stringed lutes ... sometimes in the shape of woman ... transfiguring the resonance of the instrument into rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by the simplifications and distortions demanded by the shape of the instrument. The prophetic head with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the tuning keys as a kind of
ear-ornament, carried aloft on a neck of ordinate lenght, is a noble mask. Through its thin lipped mouth a god may speak - as he
does through the  dance mask of another tribe, the Bhuiya...Arms and hands closely hug the curved plane of the sounding-box body
whose firmness is enhanced visually by the broad collar of the necklace....Sound and mask, the prophetic voice which speaks
through mask and instrument, link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation of the numinous." Stella Kramrisch "Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and village" Philadelphia 1968.

 

Immagine 049

N7 Top side view. Great patina, museum quality sculpture.

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N7  Frontal face view.

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N7 top detail view.

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N7 top detail view.

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N7 top detail  view.

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N7 top detail view.

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N7 top detail view.

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N7 top detail view.

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N7 top detail view.

Immagine 051

N7 carved box frontal view.

Immagine 052

N7 carved box frontal view.

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N7 side A view.

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N7 side A detail view.

Immagine 059

N7 side A view.

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N7 side A view.

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N7 side A view.

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N7 side B view.

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N7 top side B view detail.

 

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N7 bis. Top frontal  and side view. Minimal and  really strong tribal style of the two faces. Courtesy Arts Premiers Collection Bruxelles.

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N7 bis back front and side  view.

 

Immagine 068N8

N8 frontal view.

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N8 top drontal view.

Immagine 071

N8 top side view.

Immagine 072

N8 top side view.

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N8 frontal view.

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N9 frontal view.

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N9 top frontal view.

Immagine 075

N9 3/4 top side view.

Immagine 076

N10 back top side view.

Immagine 077

N11 back side view.

Immagine 078

N11 back top side view detail. 

Immagine 079

N11 back musical box view. 

Immagine 080

N11 Side A view .

Immagine 081

N11 Top side A view detail.

Immagine 082

N11 Side A detail view. 

Immagine 083

N11 Side A detail view. 

Immagine 084

N11 Top side A view detail.

Immagine 085

N11 Side B view. 

Immagine 086

N11 Side B view detail. Exceptional red patina of the wood.

Immagine 087

N11 Side B view . Original restauration detail. 

Immagine 089

N11 top frontal view detail. Exceptional state of usura and patina.

Immagine 090

N11 Top frontal view detail.

 

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N11 bis top frontal  and side view. Courtesy Arts Premiers Collection Bruxelles.

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N11 bis frontal,  side and back view.

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N11 bis detail view.

 

Immagine 091

N12 Frontal view.

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N12 frontal view detail. 

Immagine 093

N12 Frontal view detail. 

Immagine 094

N12  3/4 Side view detail.

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N12  3/4 Top side view detail. 

Immagine 096

N13 Frontal view. 

Immagine 097

N13 Top frontal view.

Immagine 099

N13 3/4 Top side view. 

Immagine 100

N13.

Immagine 098

N13 Frontal view detail.

 

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N13 bis fronta and top frontal view detail. Courtesy Arts Premiers Collection Bruxelles.

 Immagine 101

N14 Frontal view.

Immagine 102

N14 Top frontal view detail.

Immagine 103

N14 3/4 Top side view. 

Immagine 104

N14 Back top view detail. 

 Immagine 001

 

N15 frontal view. Carved in a primitive manner this lute has a face carved on the top.

 

Immagine 002

 

N15 Top face frontal view detail.

 

Immagine 003

 

N15 Top face side A view detail.

 

Immagine 004

 

N15 Top face side B view detail.

 

Immagine 018

 

N15 Another top frontal view detail.

 

Immagine 005

N15 Frontal view. Interesting the red/dark  patina of the liute, more clear in the follow photos.

Immagine 006

 

N15 Side A view.

 

Immagine 007

 

N15 Side B view.

 

Immagine 008

 

N15 Frontal view.

 

Immagine 009

 

N15 Side A view.

 

Immagine 010

 

N15 Side B view.

 

Immagine 011

 

N15 Frontal view of the musical box.

 

Immagine 012

 

N15 Side A view.

 

Immagine 013

 

N15 Side B view.

 

 

Immagine 015

N15 Detail.

Immagine 014

N15 Detail.

Immagine 017

 

N15 Detail.

 

Immagine 016

 

N15 Base of the liute view.

 

Short Bibliography:

 

 

Bor Joep. The Voice of the Sarangi. Delhi: National Centre for the Perfoming Arts, 1987.

Charulal Mukherjea, The Santals. Mukherjea and Co editions, Calcutta, 1962.

Chattopadhyaya,  Kamaladevi. Tribalism in India. New Delhi, 1978.

Culshaw, W. J. Tribal Heritage; a Study of the Santals. London: Lutterworth Press, 1949.

Danieloud,  Alain. "Sudasien". Musikgeshichte in Bildern 1,4 (1978) and La Musique de l'Inde du Nord. Buchet-Chastel editions.

 

Dietrich, Would and Bengt Fosshag. Aussereuropaische lauten, Werkzeug und Kunstwerk, Frankfurt 1992.

Leuzinger, Elsy. Propylaen Kunstgeschichte. Die Kunst der Naturvolken. Frankfurt, 1978.

Mode, Heinz and Subodh Chandra. Indische Volkskunsy. Leipzig, 1984. Indian Folk Art. Leipzig/New York 1985.

Prasad Onkar, Santal Music. New Delhi, 1985.

 

 

Sachs Curt. Die Musikinstrumente Indiens und Indonesiens. Berlin & Leipzig, 1923.

Shirali, Vishnudass Sargam. An Introduction to Indian Music. New Delhi, 1977.

Verrier Elwin. The Tribal Art of Middle India. London 1951.

Santal musical instruments:

 TIRIO: A bamboo flute with seven holes, symbol of love and seduction it's the most popular in the Santal culure.

DHRODO BANAM: Bowed lute carved out a single log of wood.

PHET BANAM: Lute with three or four strings, the waist part of the instrument is completely covered by animal skin.

TUMDAK: Knowed also as MADOL, is a double faces drum with a body brunt clay.

TAMAK: Bowl shaped kettle drum.

JUNKO: Onomatopeic description of the sound of the anckle bells, cast in metal in the shape of buds and tied to the feet of dancers from where produce a rythmical sounds.

 

INDIAN  Classical and Tribal Musical Instruments List:

Agappai Kinnari Galad Rabab
Algoza Ghana Vadyas Ravanastram
Ayarkuzhal Gna Rudra Veena
Baghra Gopichand Saaz
Bamboo Trumpet Hudka Santoor
Bans Imbingi Sarangi
Bansuri Jalatarang Saraswati Veena
Been Jamidika Sarattai Vadyam
Been Baja Jhil Sarinda
Bhajni Veena Jya Satara
Bhangra Dhol Kabbas Saxophone
Bheri Kadae Seni Rabab
Buang Kahala Shankh
Budbudke Kamaycha Singa
Bugdu Kanaka Tappattai Siranda
Bulbul Tarang Kanjari Sree Mandal
Burburi Kanjira Sruthi Box
Chajj-Sota Kartal Stir Drum
Chandra Pirai Kasht Tarang Sundri
Chaturangui Khang Ling Sur Singar
Chhika Sap Khatam Surpeti
Chimta Khung Swarabat
Chitraveena Kombu Swarmandal
Chutki Kram Swarsangam
Cymbal Kudukka Veena Tabla Tarang
Daf Magadi Veena Tammki
Damaram Manjira Tar Shehnai
Danda-Sota Mashak Tarpa
Dappu Mattiyaan Jodi Tasha
Dhad Mukhavina Taus
Dhodro Banam Naal Thali
Dholak Nal Thanthi Panai
Dhumsa Nanduni The Harmonium
Dotara Narh The Tambura
Douroo Narsing Tokka
Duff Nissan Tudi
Duff Noot Tumbaknari
Duggi Tarang Noubat Tuntune
Dumbak Panchamukha Vadya Udkka
Dundubhi Panchamukhavaadyam Udukku
Ekadani Veena Patti Tarang Urumi
Fifli Pena Urumu
Gadva Pepa Vichitra Veena
Gagana Pungi Yazh

Work in progress...