01/06/2013

ART HIMALAYAN CASTRE MUSEE CANNES

MUSEE DE LA CASTRE

CANNES 

HIMALAYAN COLLECTION

2010 RECEPTION'S PICTURES

*

MORE

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2009/10/11/mu...

AND

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2009/12/27/mu...

 

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**********************

03/10/2012

MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES SANTAL SARANGI PIERRE FERNANDEZ ARMAN

MASTERPIECES 

OF 

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

*****

Mus+®e de la Castre_Cannes_1991.21.1.jpg

 

1991.21.1_musée de la CAstre.jpg

 

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

*

"...une vièle Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, évocateur. 

 

Sa présence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. 

 

Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  

 

C'est bien ici l'exemple d'un objet  d'artisanat, échappant  à son usage pour accéder à l'intemporel".

 

Pierre  Fernandez   Arman

on  

"Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d'Aquisitions d'Art Primitif

du

Musée de la Castre" 

Cannes

****

About the Tribal Arts of the Santal People

see more on

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2012/04/03/sa...

************

**********

BENGT FOSSHAG

RABAB, SARANGI, SARINDA AND RELATED

INSTRUMENTS

 

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SEE MORE ON

 ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2012/09/27/bengt-fosshag-rabab-sarangi-sarinda-and-related-instruments.html

EXTRACT FROM

THE TRIBAL ARTS

A

CROSS CULTUAL HERITAGE

NUMBER

0

 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2012/09/07/th...

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E

 
 

 

 

 

01/10/2012

TRIBAL ARTS A PLASTIC, INTERDISCIPLINARY POINT OF VIEW

TRIBAL ARTS

 

A

 

PLASTIC, INTERDISCIPLINARY 

 

POINT OF VIEW

*************

EXTRACT FROM

THE 

TRIBAL ARTS 

A

CROSS CULTURAL HERITAGE

 ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2012/09/07/the-tribal-arts-a-cross-cultural-heritage1.html

 

***********************

THE CHOICE OF THE COLLECTOR

 

 Pictures courtesy of

 

Christian Lequindre, Elio Revera, Robert Brundage, Vittorio Carini, Musée de la Castre Cannes

 

**************

 

 

 

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE 

 

 

 

90-1.jpg

 

(Picture courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

 

Ceremonial mask

 

Wood, fiber, iron staples, white pigment 

 

Eastern Nepal  H: 33cm

 

Published: "NEPAL Shamanism and Tribal Sculpture".

 

C.Lequindre / M.Petit. 2009.

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

VITTORIO CARINI

 

bete0110.jpg

 

(Photo Courtesy of Vittorio Carini)

 

Bete, Gre or Gle Mask

 

Ivory Coast, Issia Region

 

Wood, sacrificial encrustations, magic substances, horse hair, shells, fangs, metal studs, handbells, iron, coins, h 11in/cm 28

 

ex Antoine Ferrari de la Salle collection

 

ex Alain de Monbrison collection

 

Published

 

Bargna I, e Parodi da Passano G., "L'Africa delle meraviglia - Arti africane nelle collezioni italiane", Genova, Silvana Editoriale, Cinisello Balsamo (MI), pag. 83, color

 

 

 

Kpelle.jpg

 

(Photo Courtesy Vittorio Carini)

 

Kpelle mask

 

Liberia

 

Wood metal  feather

 

H cm 29 

 

ex

 

Robert Duperrier

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

 ROBERT BRUNDAGE

 

 BOB.jpg

 

(Photo Courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

Himalayan mask

 

Published 

 

"Tribal Arts Winter 1995-96

 

The Himalayas: Hidden or Revealed Faces?"

 

Eric Chazot

 

****

 

**

 

*

 

MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES

 

 

 

1991.4.1_musée de la Castre.jpg

 

TIMOR MASK

 

INVENTORY N 1991.41.1

 

Photo Musée de la Castre

 

Cannes

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

ELIO REVERA

  

image_preview.jpg

 

(Photo Courtesy of Elio Revera)

 

Baoulé people, Gbekrè, Monkey Figure

 

Mbotumbo

 

Ivory Coast

 

H 25,6 in/65 cm

 

Wood, iron, cloth, sacrifical encrustations and traces of ritual offerings

 

Ex Ernst Ascher, old Collection, Paris

 

Published:

 

Bargna I, e Parodi da Passano G., "L'Africa delle meraviglia - Arti africane nelle collezioni italiane", Genova, Silvana Editoriale, Cinisello Balsamo (MI)

**********************

***********

*****

07/09/2012

THE TRIBAL ARTS A CROSS CULTURAL HERITAGE

THE 

TRIBAL ARTS

CROSS CULTURAL HERITAGE

********

NUMBER 

'0'

The begin of this web project could not be possible without the collaboration of:

 

Max Itzikovitz, Marc Petit, Bengt Fosshag, Christian Lequindre, Elio Revera, Robert Brundage, Francois 'Sanza' Boulanger, Vittorio Carini, Musèe de la Castre Cannes

 

************

 

CONTENT/CONTENU/CONTENUTI

 

***********

 

WARREN MURRAY ROBBINS

 

Sept 4, 1923 - December 4, 2008

 

IN MEMORIAM

 

 

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**************

 

MAX ITZIKOVITZ

AN INTERDISCIPLINARY EXPERIENCE

Text by Ethnoflorence

Pictures courtesy of Max Itzikovitz

All Rights Reserved

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**********

LA VENUS DE LESPUGUE

CHIEF-D'OEUVRE

DE TOUS LE TEMPS

 

Text courtesy of Max Itzikovitz

All Rights Reserved

 

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Photo courtesy of Wikipedia

************

UNE HISTOIRE DE MASQUES.....

Text and Pictures courtesy 

of

Marc Petit

All Rights Reserved to Marc Petit

 

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********

TRIBAL ARTS

PLASTIC, INTERDISCIPLINARY POINT OF VIEW,

THE CHOICE OF THE COLLECTOR

Pictures courtesy

of

 

Christian Lequindre, Elio Revera, Robert Brundage, Vittorio Carini,

Musèe de la Castre Cannes

 

All Rights Reserved

 

1803621192.2.jpg

**********

RABAB, SARANGHI, SARINDA

AND 

RELATED INSTRUMENTS

 

Text and Pictures Courtesy 

of 

Bengt Fosshag

 

All Rights reserved to Bengt Fosshag

 

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 ************

RELATED AND SUGGESTED 

BOOKS

 2208040511.jpg

**********

French version of the Features:

Warren Robbins in Memoriam

and of

Max Itzikovitz 

an interdisciplinary experience

*********

****

**

WARREN MURRAY ROBBINS

Sept 4, 1923 - December 4, 2008

IN MEMORIAM

*

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The  lives of everyone of us are intimately connected  with the encounters and with the influences that these determine in our way, someone calls this evolution , growth.

A concept that is still more  important if connected  to the  life of a  collector, in which the several experiences, even though heterogenous, stretch to gather and to express themselves in his own collection, nearly that this is an emanation of his own personality, of his own spirit. 

A stereotype connected to the United States is the one that  links this country  to a sort of " dream land" in which every individual can realize his own dream, I believe that Warren Robbins has been a man who has had the luck, ucommon,  to realize it; founding in 1964, as a simple collector, a Museum devoted to the traditional African Arts, without  never been in Africa.

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But perhaps ' luck' it is not the right word in order to define his ventur ; intuition, determination, stubbornness… are words perhaps more right to understand his evolution, his growth.

Entering in his house I recognized, on a table  crowded of books, the  three numbers of " Transformation, Art Environmentent, Communication" , an editorial magazine of the very early 50's' , in which was  pursued a sort of multicultural 'utopia' , putting together personalities from the most varied fields of the knowledge; a writing that was the only place in which, for example, the visionary architect Bucminister Fuller could express liberations of his own theories… without being exchanged for a crazy person ; a group heterogenous of intellectuals who asserted " … that art, science, technology are interacting components of the total human enterprise… " in this way they were  pursuading the utopia  to construct a bridge " … across the arts and sciences by treating them as to continuum… " emphasizing " … the dynamic, process view as against static absolutes… open as against closed systems...culture under transformation'.

'The Map is not the territory'

(Alfred Korzybsky)

The institute for General Semantics of New York was another multicultural center very active  in those years, it was there that the young Warren Robbins met one person  very important for his life, Mr Harry Holtzman , the  publisher of TransFormation, one of the entertainers of the " The Art Club" , between the founding members of the American Abstract Artist in the 30's, but, although older than Robbins of only eleven years, a man who at  that time had already completed ' the venure'  of his life, and realized his " personal dream" .

Twice dispossed of all during the great depression Holtzman in the November of 1934, at the age of 22, left from New York to Paris with the only intention to know the dutch Master Piet Mondrian.

The two, despite the difference of age, become immediate

friends, Holtzman then sponsored   Mondrian's immigration in the Usa in the 1940.

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The experiences matured from Holtzman in the  30' and 40' they had to be an extraordinary stimulus for Robbins, gave to him probably the taste for the impossible ventures.

The multiculturalism seems to be one of the constants of the evolution of Robbins, speaking about the African culture he used, and  associated with  emphasis, the term  'respect'.

His museum  expanded in a rich directly connection with an American historic place, but also with the ' African roots ' , a ' location' highly symbolic, the house that were of Frederick Douglass, one of the promotorers and supporterers of the abolitionism of the slavery in America.

Between the main attempts of the Robbins venture  it was that one to promote " the cross-cultural communication " in years in which the debate around the civil rights  was particulary emphasized.

The seed of Transformation, I thought, has found in Warren Robbins an extraordinary witness.

Seeing also the reproduction of Mondrian works mixed with african stuff, I have understood the rest.

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Text and pictures by Ethnoflorence

all rights reserved 

***********

 

MAX ITZIKOVITZ

 

AN INTERDISCIPLINARY EXPERIENCE

 

****************

 

Each collection, like the canvas of the painter or the musician's musical score, has it's peculiar features, a sort of 'fil rouge' that makes the recherche of the collector unique and unrepeatable.

 

At first glance, complex heterogeneous collections of various sectors of the arts premiers and of contemporary art, assembled by a single collector, to a more careful analysis can uncover rather obvious connections and points of contact, revealing how the collector has

 

'chased'

 

the specific note, this particular trait,

 

that universal archetype

 

in materials only apparently incompatible and different.

 

In the catalog "Passioni d'Africa" (L'Arte Africana nelle Collezioni italiane 2009 pag.193) Chantal Dandrieu outlines the character

 

 the search criteria

 

 AAA.jpg

 

in African field of Mr Max Itzikovitz, typical of an

 

independent eye

 

 not conformed with the directives and stereotypes of the market,

 

always ready to discover

 

"new things ... and ignored"

 

and without the fear 

 

of defending his own new discoveries.

 

The result of thirty years of research, his Himalayan collection, seems inspired by the aesthetic presupposition.

 

The Dandrieu's words about the character of Mr Itzikovitz are confirmed by the memory of his first purchase in this area, the discovery of an anonymous and mysterious mask, something that looked like nothing he had seen previuosly.

 

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 He did not know which area it came from.

 

Then Itzikovitz decided to purchase other of the same typology, without worrying

 

about the absence of a "notorious pedigree", use, or ethnic group attribution.

 

 

An "unusual practice among lovers of primitive arts "always anxious to see "the unchallengeable" criteria of the age, authencity, origin.

 

 

 Free from all prejudice, supported only by his intuition,

 

he collected objects without history guided only by the aesthetic  criteria

 

 

... and "fresh eyes";

 

 

intrigued by the back sides that every collector would dream of finding in"a very ancient  Dan mask from the Ivory Coast, or a Quiche one from Guatemala...".

 

 OK 4.jpg

 

The name

 

Max Itzikovitz

 

gave

 

some of his himalayan objects  probably partly reveals the

 

common thread

 

of his  heterogeneous intellectual pursuit of a universal archetype:

 

"Baule monkey begging", "Olga, Tribute to Picasso"  

 

"Francis Bacon's prize-fighter", "The astonished Inuit," "The Gesuit",

 

"The Batak" "Boris Karloff in meditation""Fantomas"...

 

OK 3.jpg

 

 

 

In the catalog

 

WOOD SCULPTURE IN NEPAL  JOKERS AND TALISMANS  

 

we discover an hidden side of this  International Collector of Arts Premiers, a sort of partial autobiography,

 

a mirror which reflects a part of his inmost soul;

 

not just a sectorial catalog , but the mature fruit of a mystical visual search, unavoidable chapter of a journey ..... of his independent, personal, unique and tireless, archetypal interdisciplinary research.

 

Text by Ethnoflorence

 

All rights reserved

 

****

 

**

 

*

 

MAX ITZIKOVITZ

 

LA VENUS DE L'ESPUGUE CHEF-D'OEUVRE DE TOUS LES TEMPS

 

________________________________________________________

 

 

 

En 1963

 

trvaillant à Abidjan

 

je découvre

 

chez un antiquaire , une porte sculptée en relief  de personnages et d'animaux .

 

Porte de sanctuaire?...

 

Mais c'est la même démarche que la porte en bronze du baptistère de PISE que j'ai admirée à 19 ans ! et celle-ci je peux la posséder ?

 

Voilà le début .

 

Et je passe doucement d'une porte  SENUFO du 19 eme siècleà une poulie Guro , à un masque Dan , à un couple de statues Baule  .

 

Tous ces objets sont des

 

intercesseurs

 

entre l' homme et les puissances surnaturelles : les artistes sont des

 

intermédiaires

 

et à l'égal des dieux , ils créent leur  propre univers, et comme Dieu à partir de RIEN : un rocher , une branche d'arbre , de la glaise , du métal brut , des couleurs . Les artistes façonnent leur propre monde qui ne ressemble à rien de ce qui existe 

 

PABLO PICASSO , LE DEMIURGE DU 20 ieme SIECLE

 

________________________________________

 

C'est celui qui à travers les arts IBERES puis les arts d' Afrique et D'Océanie  finit par ouvrir toutes les portes .

 

Et sans Pablo  Picasso , je suis persuadé qu'aujourd'hui encore , les arts appelés primitifs ne seraient pas compris ni  perçus pour ce qu'ils sont :

 

une ouverture sur l'imaginaire .

 

ARTS SOLAIRES ET ARTS DE LA NUIT : L'AFRIQUE ET L'OCEANIE .

 

________________________________________

 

Revenons au début : en 1906 , chez Gertrude Stein , Henri Matisse pose sur la table une statuette Bacongo : c'est un art proche de l'art égyptien , réaliste et quelque peu figé .Puis Wlaminck découvre un masque du Gabon qui bien que  sculpté pour la vente , garde encore ses  caractéristiques Fang d'origine .

 

A partir de là,

 

Pablo Picasso

 

"réinvente l'art africain":

 

les demoiselles d'Avignon 

 

"comme dans un travelling cinématographique, racontent l'histoire de l'art de gauche à droite.

 

L'art égyptien aboutit à l'art qu'on nommera 

 

"cubiste"

 

et qui fera éclater les perspectives.

 

Le génie de Picasso 

 

inventé

 

la

 

VENUS  DU 20eme SIECLE,

 

30.000 ans plus tard que la Vénus de Lespugue ! : c'est la Vénus assise les jambes écartées et au visage concave.dONC depuis 1963 , j'essaie de m'entourer d' oeuvres d' "art premier ", mais derrière cette quête c'est l'art pariétal et les sculptures de la préhistoire qui me hantent .

 

Ces noms :

 

"Lespugue", "Sireuil", "Brassempuy", "Willemdorf", "Vestonica",

 

quelle musique...

 

la maîtrise  est totale: tension des courbes, harmonie des différents plans, quelle inventivité! ...quelle musique jazzy !

 

un surgissement qui atteint dès son aurore, l'apogée; et qui allie réalisme au cubisme.

 

Donc, j'ai acquis des sculptures africaines....en Afrique, en m'éloignant le plus souvent des "arts de la côte" , trop réalistes à mon goût. (je dis quelques fois que les arts Bacongo ou Punu ne sont pas de l'art africain...)

 

Puis, de l'art solaire de l'Afrique, j'ai pris une passerelle vers l'art nocturne de Mélanésie, oü les sculptures polychromes dans les "long houses" sont éclairées par des torches qui nous dévoilent des peintures fantasmatiques .

 

LE DESIGN EN AFRIQUE.

 

________________________________________

 

Mon intérêt , ouvert sur le 20eme siècle, s'est aussi penché sur l'univers des formes et des arts utilitaires .

 

J'ai été émerveillé par la créativité d'un mobilier simple et beau; beau parce que simple : sièges , appui-nuques , cuillères , récipients, etc...toutes ces réalisations sont dans la même veine , la même pureté que le design d'aujourd'hui et dont ceux-ci s'inspirent souvent.

 

Finalement,

 

les arts d'Afrique et d'Oceanie

 

ont accouché des arts de notre époque...

 

*

 

Text Courtesy of Max Itzikovitz

 

All Rights Reserved

 

**********

 

**

 

 

 

MARC PETIT

 

UNE HISTOIRE DE MASQUES....

 

*

 

J'ai commencé à collectionner des pièces d'art tribal -principalement des masques - fin 1979, à Paris, de retour d'Amérique indienne (Bolivie, Guatemala) où j'avais été touché par les gens et leurs productions.

 

le masque du chat - Copia.jpg

 

Apres avoir d'abord acquis dans le commerce parisien un certain nombre d'objets africains,  mais aussi indonésiens et d'autres provenances encore,

 

je suis tombé,

 

en janvier 1981, sur mon premier masque "primitif" himalayen. 

 

On ne savait rien à l'époque sur cette sorte d'objets, qui commençaient à peine à sortir. 

 

D'emblée, j'ai été saisi par la beauté et la force de ce masque et j'ai décidé presque aussitôt d'aller au Népal pour voir sur place ce qu'il en était et essayer de trouver moi-même là-bas des objets intéressants.

 

le  Vieux et la Vieille  - Copia.jpg

 

Ma défunte compagne Yvonne et moi sommes retournés une bonne douzaine de fois, de 1982 à 1993.

 

Par l'intermédiaire d'un marchand tibétain de Kathmandu, Dawa Gyaltsen, j'ai fait la connaissance d'Eric Chazot, et plus tard de Christian Lequindre ; j'ai acheté à l'un et à l'autre, devenus des amis, ainsi que, plus rarement, à quelques 

 

antiquaires parisiens, dont Francine Burla, un certain nombre de masques, mais la plupart de mes acquisitions se sont   faites sur place, à Kathmandu, auprès des quelques marchands qui avaient l'œil : Dawa Gyaltsen, Tenzing, Rinchen, Karma Lama, Vishnu Ratnashahi, Hari Bista.

 

Je me suis progressivement consacré à rassembler essentiellement masques, statues et objets divers originaires du Népal  et des régions avoisinantes, de sorte que ma collection s'est trouvée centrée sur cet art jugé à l'époque marginal. 

 

Il y avait très peu d'information sur de tels objets. 

 

J'ai été heureux de pouvoir écrire le premier livre qui leur fut consacré :

 

"A masque découvert, regards sur l'art primitif  de l'Himalaya"

 

chez Stock, en 1995.

 

 

 

MARC PETIT 1.jpg

 

Ce livre, couronné par la grand prix du livre d'art de la Société des Gens de Lettres, a fait  date dans l'histoire de la discipline. 

 

 C'est parmi les 120 masques présentés dans cet ouvrage que nous avons choici, Germain Viatte et moi, les 25 objets de ma donation au musée du quai Branly, effectuée en 2003, avant même  que le musée ne sorte de terre. 

 

Ces 25 masques

 

ont été présentés au Musée lors de l'exposition

 

"Dans le blanc des yeux"

 

en décembre 2010.

 

 

 

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Je suis écrivain et non ethnologue, mais j'ai lu à peu près tout ce qui a pu être écrit, avant et après la parution de mon livre, sur le sujet. 

 

Mon approche est essentiellement esthétique, mais je m'intéresse aussi aux artistes inconnus et aux sociétés au sein desquelles ces œuvres ont été crées. 

 

Je pense avoir joué un rôle déterminant dans l'accès de ces œuvres à une pleine visibilité, en construisant l'appareil intellectuel et esthétique permettant de les appréhender et d'en saisir l'originalité.

 

Il a fallu du temps pour que les sceptiques et parfois même, les négateurs, finissent par reconnaître, non sans réticence parfois, l'existence ce cet art jusque-là tenu pour marginal, voire inexistant ! 

 

Art tribal qui avait le défaut

 

de n'être ni africain ni océanien, mais surtout celui de ne ressembler en rien aux productions classiques des arts tibétain, indien et chinois connus de longue date chez les amateurs d'antiquités asiatiques.

 

Quant aux ethnologues de terrain, aucun ne s'était intéressé à ces objets maintenus plus ou moins au secret dans les villages,  les familles et sans doute aussi, les chamanes en activité dans un nombre limité de lieux d'accès incertain si l'on ne connait pas l'origine précise de chaque objet, ce qui est encore très largement le cas, hic et nunc.

 

Masque, Himachal Pradesh - Copia.jpg

 

Masques de pantomime, masques de temples, masques figurant des ancêtres, masques d'usage chamanique (ce dernier point fait encore débat),  l'éventail est large en matière de fonctions (je préfère dire "d'usage"), mais les pistes sont embrouillées et souvent presque entièrement effacées, ces objets provenant d'époques anciennes, de sociétés qui ont évolué avec le temps en subissant l'influence de la culture dominante hindoue/bouddhique des castes supérieures en milieu "indo-népalais" et newar.

 

 La majorité des masques tribaux est à rattacher aux traditions  d'un ensemble d'ethnies de langues tibéto-birmanes - Magar, Tamang, Gurung, Raï, etc...- aux cultures et aux croyances marquées par le chamanisme, le culte des ancêtres et un animisme qui perçoit la nature comme une entité vivante peuplée de dieux, démons et autres créatures que nous appelons, nous Occidentaux, "surnaturelles", mais qui ne  le sont pas aux yeux des gens de ces ethnies.  

 

Les statues protectrices et votives sont, elles, majoritairement issues de l'ouest du Népal, peuplé à l'origine d'Hindous (les Khas) aux croyances particulières.

 

Ce que j'aime dans cet art du masque tribal himalayen : la simplicité, l'efficacité expressive, la force extraordinaire émanant des plus beaux objets. 

 

Et aussi le côté "art brut", détournement des formes naturelles, le regard visionnaire qui décrypte les propositions du hasard et invente un visage là où d'autres ne verraient qu'une bizarrerie de la matière.

 

Rien de décoratif, de "joli", d'accessoire ; une sorte de minimalisme en même temps prodigieusement inventif. Il n'y a rien, là, qui ne soit essentiel, qui ne porte le sens, dans un effet "coup de poing".

 

Différence avec les arts africains:

 

les sculpteurs, ici, sont rarement des professionnels, ce qui ne veut pas dire qu'ils ne s'inscrivent pas, eux aussi, dans un ensemble de traditions.

 

Il y a des masques "cubistes", à côté d'autres qui nous paraîtraient, à nous Occidentaux, "expressionnistes", voire "surréalistes" ; mais une spécificité de beaucoup de ces visages est leur caractère presque plan, sans beaucoup de relief quand on le regarde de profil.

 

Obtenir l'expression suppose alors un art très maitrisé des proportions,

 

un véritable sens graphique.

 

Ceux qui les ont créés savaient varier à l'infini les combinaisons de formes simples - trois trous, deux pour les yeux et un pour la bouche - en jouant sur les écarts, les distorsions, les décalages inattendus, qui font tout le charme de ces objets sauvages, loin des académismes qui rendent parfois ennuyeux les arts classiques et même, le classicisme des arts tribaux d'autres provenances.

 

J'aime aussi les arts africains - moins l'art de cour trop poli d'Afrique centrale -, surtout celui des Dogon, et aussi les masques de Timor, dont l'esthétique ressemble souvent à celle des masques népalais.

 

En tout, je me sens plus attiré par le sauvage, l'archaïque, plus que par le côté raffiné et précieux des objets de luxe. 

 

J'aime ce qui fait rêver, les expressions changeantes, alors que dans les arts classiques, un objet n'a qu'une expression, qui souvent devient grimace ou somnolence, cesse d'être vivant à mes yeux.

 

J'aime ce qui n'en finit pas de nous questionner, de nous mettre au défi, mais aussi, nous permet de participer par  l'imagination à la vie de l'objet - non plus un objet posé, mais pour nous presque une personne.

 

Dans ma vie, les masques népalais n'ont cessé de jouer un rôle décisif, puisque Chantal Detcherry, la femme dont je partage à présent la vie, est elle aussi voyageuse, écrivain et  collectionneuse. 

 

C'est d'ailleurs par l'entremise des masques - et de mon livre - que j'ai eu le bonheur de faire sa connaissance, ainsi que celle de son mari Philippe Vercaemer, aujourd'hui disparu. 

 

J'en déduis qu'en ce qui me concerne au moins, l'efficacité chamanique des masques tribaux himalayens est un fait attesté !

 

MARC PETIT

 

Plus de détails, de réflexions et aussi, d'informations dans mes divers écrits sur le sujet:

 

outre le livre cité, deux autres ouvrages, "Népal, Chamanisme et sculpture tribale" (existe aussi en anglais), écrit en collaboration avec Christian Lequindre (chez Infolio), et "La Statuaire archaïque de l'ouest du Népal" (galerie Renaud Vanuxem, Paris), ainsi que le numéro hors série de "Beaux-Arts Magazine" consacré à l'exposition "Dans le blanc des yeux".

 

 

 

*

 

Text Courtesy of Marc Petit

 

All Rigths Reserved

 

****

 

***

 

*

 

TRIBAL ARTS

 

A

 

PLASTIC, INTERDISCIPLINARY 

 

POINT OF VIEW

 

THE CHOICE OF THE COLLECTOR

 

 Pictures courtesy of

 

Christian Lequindre, Elio Revera, Robert Brundage, Vittorio Carini, Musée de la Castre Cannes

 

**************

 

 

 

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE 

 

 

 

90-1.jpg

 

(Picture courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

 

Ceremonial mask

 

Wood, fiber, iron staples, white pigment 

 

Eastern Nepal  H: 33cm

 

Published: "NEPAL Shamanism and Tribal Sculpture".

 

C.Lequindre / M.Petit. 2009.

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

VITTORIO CARINI

 

bete0110.jpg

 

(Photo Courtesy of Vittorio Carini)

 

Bete, Gre or Gle Mask

 

Ivory Coast, Issia Region

 

Wood, sacrificial encrustations, magic substances, horse hair, shells, fangs, metal studs, handbells, iron, coins, h 11in/cm 28

 

ex Antoine Ferrari de la Salle collection

 

ex Alain de Monbrison collection

 

Published

 

Bargna I, e Parodi da Passano G., "L'Africa delle meraviglia - Arti africane nelle collezioni italiane", Genova, Silvana Editoriale, Cinisello Balsamo (MI), pag. 83, color

 

 

 

Kpelle.jpg

 

(Photo Courtesy Vittorio Carini)

 

Kpelle mask

 

Liberia

 

Wood metal  feather

 

H cm 29 

 

ex

 

Robert Duperrier

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

 ROBERT BRUNDAGE

 

 BOB.jpg

 

(Photo Courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

Himalayan mask

 

Published 

 

"Tribal Arts Winter 1995-96

 

The Himalayas: Hidden or Revealed Faces?"

 

Eric Chazot

 

****

 

**

 

*

 

MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES

 

 

 

1991.4.1_musée de la Castre.jpg

 

TIMOR MASK

 

INVENTORY N 1991.41.1

 

Photo Musée de la Castre

 

Cannes

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

ELIO REVERA

  

image_preview.jpg

 

(Photo Courtesy of Elio Revera)

 

Baoulé people, Gbekrè, Monkey Figure

 

Mbotumbo

 

Ivory Coast

 

H 25,6 in/65 cm

 

Wood, iron, cloth, sacrifical encrustations and traces of ritual offerings

 

Ex Ernst Ascher, old Collection, Paris

 

Published:

 

Bargna I, e Parodi da Passano G., "L'Africa delle meraviglia - Arti africane nelle collezioni italiane", Genova, Silvana Editoriale, Cinisello Balsamo (MI)

**********************

***********

*****

BENGT FOSSHAG

RABAB, SARANGI, SARINDA AND RELATED

INSTRUMENTS

*

Text and Pictures courtesy 

of

Bengt Fosshag

All Rights Reserved 

*

The common characteristic of these types of lutes is the fact that the body and the neck form a joint sound box.

Their body

is covered with skin, their neck locked by a thin wooden to permit playing.

Home of the rabab are

South Asia, Afghanistan, Yemen and North Africa.

Under the name of Rebec, it also existed in Europe for a short period of time.

 

   01 3241.jpg

Quanbus, a rabab from Yemen

02 3220.jpg

Rabab from Marocco

*************

The RABAS from Afganistan, Pakistan and India are club-shaped like the instruments mentioned above, however they clearly show identical indentations on each side. 

Indentations, extensions, incisions or belt are characteristic for this type of lutes in India and the Himalayan region.

The neck of the Afghan rabab contains additional pegs for the aliquot strings.

 

03 9368.jpg

04 9379.jpg

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Rabab from Afghanistan, offering extensions between neck and body as well as additional pegs in the neck area.

The Rabab from Nepal and adjacent areas is called

DAMYEN

There is a wide variety of bodies, likely related to local  ethnical peculiarities.

The peg box is particulary remarkable because, in contrast to the already mentioned instruments it shows an opening to the rear.

  

 07 9641.jpg

08 9715.jpg

 09 9785.jpg

010 9653.jpg

DSC_9695beaklein.jpg

 

The Chikara is a bowed lute.

I's morphology is comparable to that of the rabab, altough this instrument has a neck open to the rear.

This offers the advantage of easily attaching all strings to the pegs, in contrast to the Afghan rabab where it's difficult to attach the strings.

According to the same principle, the saranghi is built.

However, this instruments looks more squared.

 

011 2911.jpg

 012 2917.jpg

Sarangi, the neck open to the rear is clearly visible..

012 9467.jpg

Sarangi, small old instrument.

The peg box is shaped like an open mouth.

**********************

The

Sarinda

shows the same principle of bisetion, too.

However, one part is not covered by wood but remains open.

With the Sarinda these two parts constitute the body to which a massive neck is attached.

If figures are mounted to the Sarinda they are most easily seen from the side.

 013 3011.jpg

Sarinda from Afghanistan.

DSC_3031beaklein.jpg

 Sarinda

from Nepal,

characteristically this instrument shows a peg box open to the rear.

015 9605.jpg

016 9806.jpg

 

Sarinda from Nepal and Orissa 

(India)

*

 

The Dhodro Banam

is a

Sarinda.

 

The body is bisected, the lower part covered by skin, the upper part remains open. 

 

This instrument appears to be more slim, however, the open part does not show the crescent form. Verier Elwin made this lute of the Santal popular in the mid 20th century.

 

Today,  

 

it is called Santal lute. 

 

However, it has to be kept in mind that various Adivasi and other population groups in India and Nepal play these instruments, too.

The dhodro banam is perceived in an anthropomorpous manner, ideally as a human figure shown with arms, legs, breasts and everything else.

 

 017 9412.jpg

Dhodro Banam in ideal presentation as a fully formed human body.

To shape the head the pegbox was left open the rear to show the upper part of a human body in a plastic way the opening was turned to the rear.

The deptiction on the box of the Banam seems to be an extremely important element for the players and their audience because it often constitutes one third of the instrument.

 

 DSC_9281beaoFußklein.jpg

 

This clearly depicts the mighty structure.

One side of the head shows the hair knot which can be attached to the back of the head.

The Santal

still have another type of lute,

the

HUKA BANAM

not related to the Sarinda at all.

It's held similar to the violin and not like a cello as the Dhodro Banam is held.

Again one tries to give this type a human structure.

019 9337 DSC_9343beaklei.jpg

 019 9340.jpg

 

HUKA BANAM

With the Dhodro Banam the neck is used like a neck

while the neck of the Huka Banam has to be kept between the legs.

ABSTRACT:

THE TECHNICAL POSSIBILITIES OF THESE LUTES WITH THEIR VARIATIONS CONSTITUTE THE

BASIS

FOR THE CREATION OF A WIDE RANGE OF DIFFERETLY DESIGNED INSTRUMENTS BY LOCAL ETHNICAL GROUPS.

************

 

*********

 

***

 

RELATED AND SUGGESTED BOOKS

*

BENGT.jpg

 AUSSER EUROPAISCHE LAUTEN

Werkzeug & Kunstwerk

SAMMLUNG

Bengt Fosshag

TEXTE

Wolf Dietrich & Bengt Fosshag

Fotos:

Andreas Bottcher

Frankfurt/M. 1992

NEPAL COVER A.jpg

NEPAL

Shamanisme et sculpture tribale

Marc Petit et Christian Lequindre

Photographies: Fabrice Gousset

Infolio 2009

Contact:  

http://www.nepaltribalart.com

MARC PETIT3.JPG

LA STATUARIE ARCHAIQUE DE L'OUEST

DU NEPAL

MARC PETIT

Photographies de Hughes Dubois

GALERIE RENAUD VANUXEM 2006

MARC PETIT 1.jpg

A MASQUE DECOUVERT

REGARDS SUR L'ART PRIMITIF DE L'HIMALAYA

MARC PETIT

STOCK/ALDINES

PARIS 1995

MAX ITZIKOVITZ.jpg

Wood Sculpture in Nepal Jokers and Talismans

Collection of Max Itzikovitz

Text by Bertrand Goy

Gisèle Krauskopff

Interview with Henry Bancaud

Photographs of the Collection

Hughes Dubois

5 CONTINENT EDITIONS

2009

TRIBAL ARTS.JPG

Tribal Arts

Winter 1995-96

"The Himalayas

Hidden or Revealed Faces?"

Eric Chazot

q.jpg

Tribal Arts

Autumn/Winter 1996

"The Lutes of The Santal"

Bengt Fosshag

WARREN ROBBINS.JPG

African Art in American Collection

Warren Robbins

Praegep

1965

 ff.jpg

A HIDDEN HERITAGE

SCULTURE AFRICANE IN COLLEZIONI PRIVATE ITALIANE

Vittorio Carini

Galleria Dalton Somaré

2004

Contact

http://www.artesafricanae.org/

A.jpg

L'AFRICA DELLE MERAVIGLIE

Arti africane nelle collezioni italiane

Ivan Bargna, Giovanna Parodi da Passano

Silvana Editoriale

2010

****

**

*

WARREN MURRAY ROBBINS

IN MEMORIAM

FRENCH VERSION

Warren Robbins in memoriam

 

La vie de chacun d'entre nous est intimement liée aux rencontres et aux influences qui ont déterminé notre parcours, certains appellent cela l'évolution, la maturation.

 

Un concept qui prend encore plus d'importance s'il s'applique à la vie d'un collectionneur, vie au cours de laquelle plusieurs expériences, bien que très différentes les unes des autres, finissent par se rassembler, s'exprimer, et constituer presque la substance de sa propre personnalité, de sa propre spiritualité.

 

Le cliché qui évoque le mieux les États-Unis d'Amérique est celui du "rêve américain" le pays où chaque individu peut réaliser son propre rêve. Je pense que Warren Robbins est de ceux-là car il a eu la chance extraordinaire, de réaliser son rêve en fondant en 1964 en temps que simple collectionneur, un musée d'Art Traditionnel Africain, et cela tout en n'ayant jamais été lui-même en Afrique.

 

Mais peut-être que le mot "chance" n'est pas vraiment le terme exact pour définir son aventure; intuition, volonté, opiniâtreté ... sont les mots clés pour comprendre son évolution, sa croissance.

 

En entrant dans sa maison, j'ai reconnu, sur une table emcombrée de livres, trois numéros de "Transformation, Art Environnement, Communication", magazine édité au tout début des années 50, qui avait pour but de réaliser une sorte "d'utopie" multiculturelle, en réunissant des personnalités issuent de domaines culturels et du savoir très variés. Un magazine où pouvait s'exprimer librement, par exemple, l'architecte visionnaire Bucminister Fuller, en exposant ses théories révolutionnaires et cela sans être traité de fou. Ce magazine réunissait un groupe d'intellectuels hétérogène qui affirmaient "... que l'art, la science et la technologie sont les composants interactifs de l'entreprise humaine dans sa globalité ..." dans cette optique, ils demandaient à cette utopie de construire un pont "... reliant les arts et les sciences en les considérant comme un tout, un continuum..." en mettant en valeur la dynamique du procédé, en réaction contre des certitudes statiques établies, l'ouverture, en réaction aux systèmes clos, fermés, la culture en pleine transformation et évolution.

"La carte n'est pas le territoire"

(Alfred Korzybisky)

 

L'institut de la Sémantique Générale de New York était également un autre centre multiculturel très actif dans ces années-là. C'est là que le jeune Warren Robbins rencontra une personne très importante de sa vie, Mr Harry Holtzman, l'éditeur de "Transformation", l'un des protagonistes du "The Art Club" qui réunissait les membres fondateurs de "American Abstract Artist", des années 30. Bien qu'a peine plus âgé de onze ans que Robbins, Holtzman à l'époque était un homme qui avait déjà accompli l'aventure "de sa vie" et réalisé son "rêve personnel".

 

Ruiné par deux fois lors de la Grande Dépression, Holtzman, en novembre 1934 à l'âge de 22 ans, quitta New York pour Paris, dans la seule intention de faire la connaissance du grand maître hollandais Piet Mondrian.

 

Les deux hommes, malgré leur différence d'âge, devinrent immédiatement amis et Holtzman aida Mondrian à émigrer aux USA en 1940.

 

Les expériences entreprises et accomplies par Holtzman dans les années 30 et 40 allaient devenir un extraordinaire stimulus pour Robbins et lui donnèrent probablement le goût d'impossibles aventures.

 

Le multiculturalisme semble être l'une des constantes de l'évolution de Robbins. Parlant de la culture africaine, il utilisait le terme "respect" en l'accentuant et en le soulignant.

 

Son musée se développa aussi en liaison avec un haut-lieu de l'Histoire américaine évoquant les "Racines Africaines", un endroit hautement symbolique, la maison de Frederick Douglass, l'un des promoteurs et partisan de l'abolitionnisme de l'esclavage en Amérique.

 

Entre les principales tentatives de l'aventure Robbins,  c'est celle qui veut promouvoir "la communication interculturelle" qui mérite d'être soulignée et retenue et qui contribua à l'époque au débat à propos des "Droits Civils".

 

Les graines de la transformation ont trouvé, je crois, en Warren Robbins un extraordinaire témoin.

 

En contemplant les oeuvres de Mondrian mélangées à l'art africain j'ai compris le reste.

*********************************

*

MAX ITZIKOVITZ

Une expérience interdisciplinaire

French Version

*

Chaque collection, comme la toile du peintre ou la partition du musicien, a ses traits particuliers, une sorte de "fil rouge" qui fait de la recherche du collectionneur un fait unique et irremplacable.

A première vue, des collections complètement hétérogènes de différents secteurs de l'art, arts premiers et art contemporain, rassemblés par un seul collectionneur peuvent révéler à l'analyse, des points de rencontre évidents, des points de contact révélant comment le collectionneur a poursuivi dans ses recherches une note particulière, un trait bien défini, un archétype universel se retrouvant dans des artéfacts apparemment incompatibles et opposés. 

Dans le catalogue Passioni d'Africa (L'arte Africana nelle collezioni italiane 2009 pag. 193) Chantal Dandrieu souligne la spécificité, les critères de recherche en ce qui concerne l'Art africain de Mr Max Itzikovitz, caractéristique d'un "oeil" indépendant, non conforme avec les directives et les stéréotypes du marché, toujours prêt à découvrir "de nouvelles choses ... ignorées" et prêt à défendre, sans peur, ses propres nouvelles découvertes.

Aboutissement de trente ans de recherche, sa collection himalayenne, semble inspirée par une ligne esthétique présupposée.

La citation de Dandrieu au sujet de la spécifité de Mr Itzikovitz est vérifiée par l'histoire de son premier achat dans ce domaine, la découverte d'un masque mystérieux et inconnu, quelque chose ne ressemblant à rien de ce qu'il avait déjà vu en ce domaine.

 Il ne savait pas d'où il venait. Alors Itzikovitz décida d'acquérir d'autres masques de même typologie, sans se soucier de l'absence d'un "pedigree connu", sans connaître leur usage, ni de quel groupe ethnique il provenait.

Une "façon de faire tout à fait inhabituelle parmi les amateurs d'arts primitifs" toujours inquiets de connaître "les incontestables" critères de l'âge, de l'authenticité, de l'origine.

Libre de tout préjugé, se référant seulement à sa propre intuition, il a collectionné des objets "sans histoire", guidé uniquement par ses seules critères esthétiques ... et "un oeil neuf", rêvant de découvrir les origines cachées que chaque collectionneur rêverait de trouver dans "un très ancien masque Dan de la Côte d'Ivoire, ou d'un quiche du Guatemala ...".

Les noms donnés par Max Itzikovitz à certains de ces objets himalayens révèlent probablement en partie le trait commun de sa recherche intellectuelle multiculturelle à la poursuite d'un archétype universel: "singe mendiant Baule" - "Olga, Hommage à Picasso" - "Boxeur de Francis Bacon" - "Les Inuit étonné" - "Les Gesuit " - "Les Batak " - " Boris Karloff en méditation" - "Fantomas".

Dans le catalogue

"SCULPTURE SUR BOIS AU NEPAL JOKERS ET TALISMANS",

nous découvrons la face cachée de ce collectionneur international des Arts Premiers, une sorte d'autobiographie partielle, un miroir reflètant la part la plus intime de son âme, pas seulement un catalogue partiel, mais l'aboutissement d'une recherche visuelle mystique, un incontournable chapître d'un voyage .... dédié par un esprit indépendant, personnel, unique et infatigable à une recherche archétipale interdisciplinaire 

 ***********************

ETHNOFLORENCE

2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

30/08/2012

MUSEE DE LA CASTRE LES ARTS DE L'INSULINDE CANNES

LES ARTS DE L'INSULINDE

 

LES CHEFS D'OEUVRE SORTENT DE LEUR RESERVE

 

MUSEE DE LA CASTRE 

 

 

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ETHNOFLORENCE

2012

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MUSEE DE LA CASTRE

SOME OBJECTS FROM THE COLLECTION

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15:01 Publié dans COLLECTION MUSEE DA LA CASTRE CANNES | Lien permanent | Commentaires (1) | |  Facebook | | | | Pin it! | | |  del.icio.us | Digg! Digg

Nouvelle salle Himalaya-Tibet au Musée de la Castre

 

Nouvelle salle Himalaya-Tibet
au
Musée de la Castre
CANNES


19/07/2012

ARTE TRIBALE DEI SANTAL DHODRO BANAM

ARTE TRIBALE DEI SANTAL

(english and italian version)

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS

*

Questa pagina non sarebbe stata realizzabile senza il prezioso contributo di materiale fotorafico da parte di:

This page could not be possible 

without the precious contribute

of  pictures

by

COLLECTION MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES  © PHOTO CLAUDE GERMAIN

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

http://www.nepaltribalart.com/index.asp?p=65

ROBERT BRUNDAGE PETALUMA CA

http://www.artyeti.com/

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/

FREDERIC ROND PARIS

http://www.indianheritage.biz/

HERVE PERDIOLLE PARIS

http://herveperdriollecv.blogspot.com/

MORDACCI  COLLECTION

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/a-m-collection-all-ri...

SANATAN KAVADIYA NEW DELHI

http://www.tribalartsindia.com/

RICHARD LAIR

and text 

by

ELIO REVERA BRESCIA

http://artidellemaninere.forumattivo.it/f8-love-driven-ch...

ETHNOFLORENCE

*******

An online

vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

ON

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

*****

Mus+®e de la Castre_Cannes_1991.21.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

"...une vièle Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, évocateur. 

Sa présence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. 

Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  

C'est bien ici l'exemple d'un objet  d'artisanat, échappant  à son usage pour accéder à l'intemporel".

Pierre  Fernandez   Arman

on  

"Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d'Aquisitions d'Art Primitif

du

Musée de la Castre" 

Cannes

l.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Perché ci circondiamo di bellezza? E perché questo circondarci non ci ha mai appagato, noi uomini, di ogni dove e di ogni tempo? Per una semplice ed insieme cogente motivazione: perché ne abbiamo bisogno!

Guardo questo oggetto che cari amici hanno avuto l’ardire di porre sotto i miei occhi; l’ardire, perché conoscono la mia limitata cultura ed il mio sconfinato amore per le produzioni artistiche di un altro continente.

Ma la loro è una sfida vinta in partenza: questa straordinaria creazione, l’immagine di questa fanciulla dai seni puntuti e da un’ incredibile quanto armoniosa corolla, mi ha conquistato al primo sguardo.

Non ha importanza cosa sia.

Io ne ammiro le purissime forme, ancestrali, evocative, ardite e stupefacenti: ed i miei sensi sono appagati da quella Dea misteriosa e sublime….avita e sconosciuta: la dea della Bellezza che in ogni cultura ha ricevuto nomi diversi, ma dovunque ha lascito profondissima traccia di sé, col suo passo lieve ed incorporeo.

( Elio Revera, socioanalista)

Dhodro Banam_5 - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

I santal scolpirono i loro liuti antropomorfi, i Dhodro Banam, spesso nella forma di una donna, trasfigurando le risonance dell'istrumento nelle rotondità plastiche conosciute nella scultura Hindu reinterpretate al livello tribale attraverso la simplificazione  e distorsione domandata e dettata dalla particolare forma dello strumento.

The Santal

carved their one stringed lutes sometimes in the shape of  a woman,

transfigurating the resonance of the instrument into rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by simplifications and distortions demanded by the

shape of the instrument.

5.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

L'interpretazone che segue dello strumento effettuata da Stella Kramrisch è una delle più acute espresse in queto campo, e allo stesso tempo poetica.

The prophetic head with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the turning keyes as a kind of ear ornament, carried aloft on a neck of inordinate length,

is a noble mask.

Through its thin lipped mouth god may speak.

Il banam è considerato infatti un tramite tra l'umano ed il divino.

dyn007_original_680_606_pjpeg_2592525_3c4d9cdc1f07f7b2d46d9ac58b46f980.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Il suono dello strumento quasi emanazione del volto femminile diviene profetica voce.

Sound and mask, the prophetic voice which speaks through mask and instrument,

link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation of the numinous.

Resume from

Stella Kramrisch

(Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and Village)

6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Strumento inteso come medium punto di contatto tra il visbile e l'invisibile.

The Santals believe in the magical powers of this musical instrument, a medium between the human beings and the supernatural.

k.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

w.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Anatomia umana e iconografia del Banam.

The Banam

resume in its various parts the anatomy of an human being: head, ears, neck, chest and stomach. The string is the most important part of the instrument, because it unites the other parts of the liute together, it's considered as the breadth of the Banam.

Immagine 002

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

The Head (Bonok) of the instrument represents the Space.

eck (hatok) and chest (koram) are directly connected with the Respiration and represents the equivalent natural element of the Air.

The stomach (lac) represents the fire.

The ears (lutur) the ether.

The term banam means body and represents the earth.

12 (2).jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Mito orale che ci racconta della mitologica origine del Dhodro Banam.

One oral Myth of the Santal told us the mithologyc origin of the Dhrodo Banam

 

Once upon a time  lived an old couple.

 

They had seven sons and a daughter who was the youngest of all.

The sons used to go  hunting and the sister cooked meals for them.

Some time later the couple died.

All their sons and daughter came to a forest to live  in the same way as they used to live earlier, the sister cooked the meals and looked after the house while the seven brothers went hunting.

 

One day while their sister was cutting sin arak (leaf-vegetable), one of her fingers got cut, and the blood of the wound got mixed with the vegetable.

She cooked it and served it to her brothers after their return.

They found the vegetable delicious.

So they asked their sister how the vegetable became so tasty, and found that her blood had got mixed with it.

The eldest brother wondered that if her blood could make the food so delicious, how tasty would her flesh be.

So he decided to kill her and share her flesh with his brothers.

Her body was then cut in seven pieces and each brother received a piece.

Except the youngest brother, the other ate the sister's flesh, he went to a pond sadly with his share, the fish, the crab and all the other creatures of the place, seeing this asked him the reason of his sorrow.

The youngest brother narrated them the whole story, after that the creatures of the pond suggested him not to eat the flesh of his sister and instead to put it inside the mound of white ants.

Some year later, in the place grew  a huge guloic tree.

It started to grow beautifull flowers and a melodious sound was heard from the tree.

A jugi who often used to come to the tree for picking up flowers heard this melodious sound and remained astonished.

One day he decided to cut a brunch from the magic tree and with them he constructed the first  musical instrument the

DHODRO BANAM.

 

(Text resumed  from SANTHAL MUSIC Onkar Prasad 1985)

 

*************

 

Dancers, dressed with a Sari, analogous subject we can find   in  old photos of Elwin Verrier and  in the iconography of  some carved panels of the wedding palkee of the Santal Parganas tribe as well as of the Banam.

11.jpg

 (Photo Ethnoflorence)

Ancora Stella Kramrisch caratterizza la plastica iconografia di questi pannelli istoriati dei Santal, parte delle lettighe matrimoniali tipiche dell'etnia Parganas.

 

Il parallelo con i rilievi egiziani è molto sugestivo.

 

The narrative typical carving of the panels, in low profile,  it is characterized by human figures in combined front profile view, limbs at times overlapped in telling gestures and lively actions of spontaneously formed group, and are based roughly on one groundline in common, in a cursive notation of figures, human and animal, more valuable and surely less expert, but according to Stella Kramrisch somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs.

 

10.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

Seguono informazioni circa la lettiga matrimoniale e della loro iconografia.

 

DANCERS AND MUSICIANS

 

The Santal wedding  litter is called

 

 RAHI

 

and was made by tribal craftsmen themselves.

 

The RAHI was created with a certain amount of ceremony.

 

According to Verrier Elwin and Stella Kramrisch

 

 When work was started, two pigeons were sacrificed;

 

when it was completed the couple sat on it and were carried to the central Manjhithan where more pigeons or a goat were offered.

 

THE ACTIVITY OF CARVING WAS PART OF THE MARRIAGE    RITE,  AS    WAS THE PROCESSION     OF      THE  MARRIAGE  LITTER

 

The themes

 

The main subjects carved on the Rahi's panels are derived from the local ceremonies, such  as marriages, the Miths of the Santal creation, the totems devoted to the twelve Santal clans, the Santal Hul or Santali rebellion of 1855, and especially the everyday life scenes.

 

A part of these themes it's common with the carved top of the Banam.

 

dyn005_original_400_602_pjpeg_2592525_eb2cb763ec2b0a97b02d93581a669b50.jpg

 (Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

13.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

22.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

14.jpg

 (Photo Ethoflorence)

Dhodro Banam_1.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

The Santal

traditionally accompanied many of their dances with two kind of drums the Tamak' and the Tumdak' the kettle-drum 'nagara' and  the oboe 'shanai' These musical traditions are reflects on the Banam lutes and Rahi panels iconography where the dancers are seldom accompanied by musicians too

DSCN7107.JPG

(Picture from Tribal Art of Middle India 1951 by Verrier Elwin)

33.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

dyn001_original_680_512_pjpeg_2592525_e0aba2c321c57b852aa360899dea390c.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

dyn002_original_640_480_pjpeg_2638188_e87409b263c850806b5f490e5650536e.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

dyn010_original_680_456_pjpeg_2592525_2a94c19faf8d32e643b9c6e222f9ae77.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

dyn010_original_680_466_pjpeg_2592525_a7f8e7873eb96ed385b3629e65cad31d.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sometimes musicians and dancers are accompanied also by acrobatic perfomers.

135.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Animalia nella iconografia dei Santal del Bihar

HORSES HORSEMEN AND ELEPHANTS

Another quite common iconography that we can find on the Rahi Panels is linked with the presence of elephants, horses and horsemen. Sometimes these representations are  linked with the marriage procession. It's possible to find carved  a similar iconography also on the top of  the Banam

Dhodro Banam_6(back).jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

Above Exceptional iconography of a rider and horse on the back carved top of a banam lute

P1000174.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

17.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

39.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

P1000178.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A.M.)

DSCF3603.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

SACRO AND PROFANO

Questo pannello eccezzionale nella resa iconografica ci presenta una sorta di fusione iconografica tra elementi sacri a destra e profani a sinistra.

Caratteristica tipica della libera inventiva di queste popolazioni, comune anche alla plastica 'reinventata' di tutta l'arte popolare della regione himalayana.

Bicycle.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

A mix of subjects is the iconographic base of this very interesting panel

HUNTING SCENES

Scene di caccia

archetipi universali

1258560570.jpg

(Photo Courtesy A. M.)

4106938674.jpg

(Photo courtesy A. M.)

SANTAL HUL

La rivolta dei santal

148.jpg

(Photo  Ethnoflorence)

80.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

81.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

ANIMALIA AND EVERYDAY LIFE

Toddy Palm.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

Animals - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

Animals.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

1 (2).JPG

(Photo courtesy A.M.)

4125466665.jpg

 

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

*************

sketchesfromsant00pedeiala_0169.jpg

(Sketches from Santalistan, Pederson, Mathew A. 1913)

http://archive.org/details/sketchesfromsant00pede

Un altro strumento musicale della tradizione dei Santal è il flauto traverso, ne presentiamo qui alcuni molto interessanti con estremità in bronzo fuse a cera persa.

The flute

held an important role in the music tradition of the Santal people.

DSCF4677 - Copia.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

3 flutes.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

flutes6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

DSCF4677.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Two flutes of this particulary rich tipology are present also in the collection of the Musee de la Castre of Cannes.

 1992.16.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.16.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.17.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

1992.17.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

***********

CHADOR BADONI

Puppet small wodden idol

Definition from 

A vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

73924_171960832816631_100000081457478_594899_904374_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Khavadiya)

71761_171961089483272_100000081457478_594910_1082616_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

73844_171962069483174_100000081457478_594925_4013181_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171960996149948_100000081457478_594903_6726846_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171961002816614_100000081457478_594905_8328388_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy Sanatan Kavadiya)

puppets48.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

*****************

PITTURA MAGICA DEI SANTAL

JADUPATUA

jadu = magician ; patua –or chitrakar- = painter

Santal Parganas

State of Bihar, India

(Text and pictures courtesy of  Herve Perdiolle)

Patuas and Jadupatuas from Bihar

(Creation of the world 1980)

The Jadu Patuas are painters and story tellers and go from village to village carrying their painted scrolls made of paper sheets sewn together with a bamboo stick on each extremity.

Jadu means "Magician".

The themes they represent on the scrolls are  about a dozen . However, there is different interpretation for each theme. A Jadu Patua can, looking at one scroll, say different stories depending if his audience is Hindu, Muslim or Santal. This last ethnic group is the most important audience for the Jadu Patuas.

The Patuas live with the money that the villagers give them after listening to their stories. The fact that they are magicians give a special effect to their intervention because the villagers fear them.

One of the most revealing images of the Jadu Patuas' role (in the Santal community) is the

"Mritu pat"

or

"image of the deaths"

. When somebody dies in a village near the Jadu Patua's one, the "artist magician" visits the family of the dead with a small and simple image (about 3 x 2 inches) which is supposed to represent the dead in a simple way.

Only the late person's pupil is missing.

Showing this image to the family, the Jadu Patua tells the story evoking the suffering of the dead whose soul is still trapped in hell.

The family then gives an offering to the Jadu Patua in order for him to intervene. The ritual for the Magician painter consists then to paint the dead's pupil in order to free his soul.

The principles developed by the Jadu Patuas are :

the Baha's feast

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

a strange mixture of Hindu and Santal myths showing a lot of festivities where tribal dances, sacrifices and drinking sessions scenes are mixed;

the creation of the world

(Anonyme, Création du monde, 1990, couleurs végétales sur papier, 20x420 cm)

where we can see the first human couple being born from the coupling of a goose and a gande; the painting of Kali

lai scroll painting

(Anonyme, Kali pat, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 30x240 cm, collection privée.)

composed with 3 or 4 paper sheets only, showing Kali in her most terrifying aspects

and a lot of scrolls about Yama the god of hell (showing all the ill treatments, sometimes sexual, given by Yama and his servants to the dead who behaved badly during their lifetime).

It seems that the scarier the Jadu Patuas'style gets, the more highly he is regarded.

***

**

*

 

 

 

 

15/06/2012

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS DHODRO BANAM LUTE OF THE SANTAL ADIVASI TRIBAL ART

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS

*

This page could not be possible 

without the precious contribute

of  pictures

by

COLLECTION MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES  © PHOTO CLAUDE GERMAIN

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

http://www.nepaltribalart.com/index.asp?p=65

ROBERT BRUNDAGE PETALUMA CA

http://www.artyeti.com/

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/

FREDERIC ROND PARIS

http://www.indianheritage.biz/

HERVE PERDIOLLE PARIS

http://herveperdriollecv.blogspot.com/

MORDACCI  COLLECTION

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/a-m-collection-all-ri...

SANATAN KAVADIYA NEW DELHI

http://www.tribalartsindia.com/

RICHARD LAIR

and text 

by

ELIO REVERA BRESCIA

http://artidellemaninere.forumattivo.it/f8-love-driven-ch...

ETHNOFLORENCE

*******

An online

vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

ON

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

*****

Mus+®e de la Castre_Cannes_1991.21.1.jpg

 

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

*

"...une vièle Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, évocateur. 

 

Sa présence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. 

 

Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  

 

C'est bien ici l'exemple d'un objet  d'artisanat, échappant  à son usage pour accéder à l'intemporel".

 

Pierre  Fernandez   Arman

on  

"Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d'Aquisitions d'Art Primitif

du

Musée de la Castre" 

Cannes

l.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Perché ci circondiamo di bellezza?

E perché questo circondarci non ci ha mai appagato, noi uomini, di ogni dove e di ogni tempo?

Per una semplice ed insieme cogente motivazione: perché ne abbiamo bisogno!

 

Guardo questo oggetto che cari amici hanno avuto l’ardire di porre sotto i miei occhi; l’ardire, perché conoscono la mia limitata cultura ed il mio sconfinato amore per le produzioni artistiche di un altro continente.

 

Ma la loro è una sfida vinta in partenza: questa straordinaria creazione, l’immagine di questa fanciulla dai seni puntuti e da un’ incredibile quanto armoniosa corolla, mi ha conquistato al primo sguardo.

 

Non ha importanza cosa sia.

 

Io ne ammiro le purissime forme, ancestrali, evocative, ardite e stupefacenti: ed i miei sensi sono appagati da quella Dea misteriosa e sublime….avita e sconosciuta: la dea della Bellezza che in ogni cultura ha ricevuto nomi diversi, ma dovunque ha lascito profondissima traccia di sé, col suo passo lieve ed incorporeo.

 ( Elio Revera, socioanalista)

 

Dhodro Banam_5 - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

The Santal

carved

their one stringed lutes sometimes in the shape of  a woman,

transfigurating the resonance of the instrument

into

rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by simplifications and distortions demanded by the

shape of the instrument.

 

5.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

The prophetic head

with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the turning keyes as a kind of ear ornament,

carried aloft on a neck of inordinate length,

is a noble mask.

Through its thin lipped mouth

a

god may speak.

 

dyn007_original_680_606_pjpeg_2592525_3c4d9cdc1f07f7b2d46d9ac58b46f980.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sound and mask,

the prophetic voice

which speaks through mask and instrument,

link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation

of the numinous.

Resume from

Stella Kramrisch

(Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and Village)

 

6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

The Santals

believe

in the magical powers of this musical instrument,

a medium between the human beings and the supernatural.

 

k.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

 

w.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

The Banam

resume

in its various parts the anatomy of an human being:

head, ears, neck, chest and stomach.

The string

is the most important part of the instrument,

because it unites the other parts of the liute together, it's considered as the

breadth

of the Banam.

 

Immagine 002

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

The Head (Bonok) of the instrument represents the Space.

Neck (hatok) and chest (koram) are directly connected with the Respiration and represents the equivalent natural element of the Air.

The stomach (lac) represents the fire.

The ears (lutur) the ether.

The term banam means body and represents the earth.
 

12 (2).jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)
 
One oral Myth of the Santal told us the mithologyc origin of the Dhrodo Banam
 
Once upon a time  lived an old couple.
They had seven sons and a daughter who was the youngest of all.
The sons used to go  hunting and the sister cooked meals for them.
Some time later the couple died.
All their sons and daughter came to a forest to live  in the same way as they used to live earlier, the sister cooked the meals and looked after the house while the seven brothers went hunting.
 
One day while their sister was cutting sin arak (leaf-vegetable), one of her fingers got cut, and the blood of the wound got mixed with the vegetable.
She cooked it and served it to her brothers after their return.
They found the vegetable delicious.
So they asked their sister how the vegetable became so tasty, and found that her blood had got mixed with it.
The eldest brother wondered that if her blood could make the food so delicious, how tasty would her flesh be.
So he decided to kill her and share her flesh with his brothers.
Her body was then cut in seven pieces and each brother received a piece.
Except the youngest brother, the other ate the sister's flesh, he went to a pond sadly with his share, the fish, the crab and all the other creatures of the place, seeing this asked him the reason of his sorrow.
The youngest brother narrated them the whole story, after that the creatures of the pond suggested him not to eat the flesh of his sister and instead to put it inside the mound of white ants.
Some year later, in the place grew  a huge guloic tree.
It started to grow beautifull flowers and a melodious sound was heard from the tree.
A jugi who often used to come to the tree for picking up flowers heard this melodious sound and remained astonished.
One day he decided to cut a brunch from the magic tree and with them he constructed the first  musical instrument the
DHODRO BANAM.
 
(Text resumed  from SANTHAL MUSIC Onkar Prasad 1985)
 
*************
 
Dancers, dressed with a Sari, analogous subject we can find   in  old photos of Elwin Verrier and  in the iconography of  some carved panels of the wedding palkee of the Santal Parganas tribe as well as of the Banam.
11.jpg

 (Photo Ethnoflorence)

The narrative typical carving of the panels, in low profile,  it is characterized by human figures in combined front profile view, limbs at times overlapped in telling gestures and lively actions of spontaneously formed group, and are based roughly on one groundline in common, in a cursive notation of figures, human and animal, more valuable and surely less expert, but according to Stella Kramrisch somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs.

10.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

DANCERS AND MUSICIANS

The Santal wedding  litter is called

 RAHI

and was made by tribal craftsmen themselves.

The RAHI was created with a certain amount of ceremony.

According to Verrier Elwin and Stella Kramrisch

 When work was started, two pigeons were sacrificed;

when it was completed the couple sat on it and were carried to the central Manjhithan where more pigeons or a goat were offered.

THE ACTIVITY OF CARVING WAS PART OF THE MARRIAGE    RITE,  AS    WAS THE PROCESSION     OF      THE  MARRIAGE  LITTER

The themes

The main subjects carved on the Rahi's panels are derived from the local ceremonies, such  as marriages, the Miths of the Santal creation, the totems devoted to the twelve Santal clans, the Santal Hul or Santali rebellion of 1855, and especially the everyday life scenes.

A part of these themes it's common with the carved top of the Banam.

 

  

dyn005_original_400_602_pjpeg_2592525_eb2cb763ec2b0a97b02d93581a669b50.jpg

 (Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

13.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

22.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

14.jpg

 (Photo Ethoflorence)

Dhodro Banam_1.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

The Santal

traditionally accompanied many of their dances with two kind of drums the

Tamak' and the Tumdak'

the kettle-drum 'nagara'

and  the

oboe 'shanai'

These musical traditions are reflects on the Banam lutes and Rahi panels

iconography

where

the dancers

are seldom accompanied by musicians too

 

DSCN7107.JPG

(Picture from Tribal Art of Middle India 1951 by Verrier Elwin)

 

33.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

dyn001_original_680_512_pjpeg_2592525_e0aba2c321c57b852aa360899dea390c.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

dyn002_original_640_480_pjpeg_2638188_e87409b263c850806b5f490e5650536e.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

dyn010_original_680_456_pjpeg_2592525_2a94c19faf8d32e643b9c6e222f9ae77.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

dyn010_original_680_466_pjpeg_2592525_a7f8e7873eb96ed385b3629e65cad31d.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sometimes musicians and dancers are accompanied also by acrobatic perfomers.

135.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

HORSES HORSEMEN AND ELEPHANTS

Another quite common iconography that we can find on the Rahi Panels is linked with the presence of elephants, horses and horsemen.

Sometimes these representations are  linked with the marriage procession.

It's possible to find carved  a similar iconography also on the top of  the Banam

 

Dhodro Banam_6(back).jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

Above

Exceptional iconography of a rider and horse on

the back carved top of a banam lute.

P1000174.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

17.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

39.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

P1000178.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A.M.)

 

 

DSCF3603.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

SACRO AND PROFANO

 

Bicycle.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

A mix of subjects is the iconographic base of this very interesting panel

HUNTING SCENES

1258560570.jpg

(Photo Courtesy A. M.)

 

4106938674.jpg

(Photo courtesy A. M.)

SANTAL HUL

 

148.jpg

(Photo  Ethnoflorence)

 

80.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

81.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

ANIMALIA AND EVERYDAY LIFE

 

Toddy Palm.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

1 (2).JPG

(Photo courtesy A.M.)

 

4125466665.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

*************

 

sketchesfromsant00pedeiala_0169.jpg

(Sketches from Santalistan, Pederson, Mathew A. 1913)

http://archive.org/details/sketchesfromsant00pede

 

The flute

held an important role in the music tradition of the Santal people.

DSCF4677 - Copia.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

3 flutes.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

flutes6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

DSCF4677.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Two flutes

of this particulary rich tipology are present also in the collection of the Musee de la Castre of Cannes.

 1992.16.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.16.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.17.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

1992.17.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

***********

CHADOR BADONI

 

Puppet small wodden idol

 

Definition from 

A vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

 

73924_171960832816631_100000081457478_594899_904374_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Khavadiya)

71761_171961089483272_100000081457478_594910_1082616_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

73844_171962069483174_100000081457478_594925_4013181_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171960996149948_100000081457478_594903_6726846_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171961002816614_100000081457478_594905_8328388_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy Sanatan Kavadiya)

 

puppets48.jpg

 

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

*****************

JADUPATUA

jadu = magician ; patua –or chitrakar- = painter

Santal Parganas

State of Bihar, India

(Text and pictures courtesy of  Herve Perdiolle)

 

 

Patuas and Jadupatuas from Bihar

(Creation of the world 1980)

 

The Jadu Patuas are painters and story tellers and go from village to village carrying their painted scrolls made of paper sheets sewn together with a bamboo stick on each extremity.

Jadu means "Magician".

The themes they represent on the scrolls are  about a dozen . However, there is different interpretation for each theme. A Jadu Patua can, looking at one scroll, say different stories depending if his audience is Hindu, Muslim or Santal. This last ethnic group is the most important audience for the Jadu Patuas.

 

The Patuas live with the money that the villagers give them after listening to their stories. The fact that they are magicians give a special effect to their intervention because the villagers fear them.

 

One of the most revealing images of the Jadu Patuas' role (in the Santal community) is the

 

"Mritu pat"

 

or

 

"image of the deaths"

 

. When somebody dies in a village near the Jadu Patua's one, the "artist magician" visits the family of the dead with a small and simple image (about 3 x 2 inches) which is supposed to represent the dead in a simple way.

 

Only the late person's pupil is missing.

 

Showing this image to the family, the Jadu Patua tells the story evoking the suffering of the dead whose soul is still trapped in hell.

 

The family then gives an offering to the Jadu Patua in order for him to intervene. The ritual for the Magician painter consists then to paint the dead's pupil in order to free his soul.

 

The principles developed by the Jadu Patuas are :

 

the Baha's feast

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

a strange mixture of Hindu and Santal myths showing a lot of festivities where tribal dances, sacrifices and drinking sessions scenes are mixed;

 

the creation of the world

(Anonyme, Création du monde, 1990, couleurs végétales sur papier, 20x420 cm)

where we can see the first human couple being born from the coupling of a goose and a gande;

 

the painting of Kali

lai scroll painting

(Anonyme, Kali pat, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 30x240 cm, collection privée.)

composed with 3 or 4 paper sheets only, showing Kali in her most terrifying aspects

 

and a lot of scrolls about

 

Yama

 

the god of hell (showing all the ill treatments, sometimes sexual, given by Yama and his servants to the dead who behaved badly during their lifetime).

 

It seems that the scarier the Jadu Patuas'style gets, the more highly he is regarded.

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

 

 

 

05/04/2012

TRIBAL ARTS OF THE SANTAL PEOPLE

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS

*

This page could not be possible 

without the precious contribute

of  pictures

by

COLLECTION MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES  © PHOTO CLAUDE GERMAIN

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

http://www.nepaltribalart.com/index.asp?p=65

ROBERT BRUNDAGE PETALUMA CA

http://www.artyeti.com/

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/

FREDERIC ROND PARIS

http://www.indianheritage.biz/

HERVE PERDIOLLE PARIS

http://herveperdriollecv.blogspot.com/

MORDACCI  COLLECTION

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/a-m-collection-all-ri...

SANATAN KAVADIYA NEW DELHI

http://www.tribalartsindia.com/

RICHARD LAIR

and text 

by

ELIO REVERA BRESCIA

http://artidellemaninere.forumattivo.it/f8-love-driven-ch...

ETHNOFLORENCE

*******

An online

vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

ON

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

*****

Mus+®e de la Castre_Cannes_1991.21.1.jpg

 

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

*

"...une vièle Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, évocateur. 

 

Sa présence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. 

 

Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  

 

C'est bien ici l'exemple d'un objet  d'artisanat, échappant  à son usage pour accéder à l'intemporel".

 

Pierre  Fernandez   Arman

on  

"Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d'Aquisitions d'Art Primitif

du

Musée de la Castre" 

Cannes

l.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Perché ci circondiamo di bellezza?

E perché questo circondarci non ci ha mai appagato, noi uomini, di ogni dove e di ogni tempo?

Per una semplice ed insieme cogente motivazione: perché ne abbiamo bisogno!

 

Guardo questo oggetto che cari amici hanno avuto l’ardire di porre sotto i miei occhi; l’ardire, perché conoscono la mia limitata cultura ed il mio sconfinato amore per le produzioni artistiche di un altro continente.

 

Ma la loro è una sfida vinta in partenza: questa straordinaria creazione, l’immagine di questa fanciulla dai seni puntuti e da un’ incredibile quanto armoniosa corolla, mi ha conquistato al primo sguardo.

 

Non ha importanza cosa sia.

 

Io ne ammiro le purissime forme, ancestrali, evocative, ardite e stupefacenti: ed i miei sensi sono appagati da quella Dea misteriosa e sublime….avita e sconosciuta: la dea della Bellezza che in ogni cultura ha ricevuto nomi diversi, ma dovunque ha lascito profondissima traccia di sé, col suo passo lieve ed incorporeo.

 ( Elio Revera, socioanalista)

 

Dhodro Banam_5 - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

The Santal

carved

their one stringed lutes sometimes in the shape of  a woman,

transfigurating the resonance of the instrument

into

rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by simplifications and distortions demanded by the

shape of the instrument.

 

5.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

The prophetic head

with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the turning keyes as a kind of ear ornament,

carried aloft on a neck of inordinate length,

is a noble mask.

Through its thin lipped mouth

a

god may speak.

 

dyn007_original_680_606_pjpeg_2592525_3c4d9cdc1f07f7b2d46d9ac58b46f980.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sound and mask,

the prophetic voice

which speaks through mask and instrument,

link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation

of the numinous.

Resume from

Stella Kramrisch

(Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and Village)

 

6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

The Santals

believe

in the magical powers of this musical instrument,

a medium between the human beings and the supernatural.

 

k.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

 

w.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

The Banam

resume

in its various parts the anatomy of an human being:

head, ears, neck, chest and stomach.

The string

is the most important part of the instrument,

because it unites the other parts of the liute together, it's considered as the

breadth

of the Banam.

 

Immagine 002

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

The Head (Bonok) of the instrument represents the Space.

Neck (hatok) and chest (koram) are directly connected with the Respiration and represents the equivalent natural element of the Air.

The stomach (lac) represents the fire.

The ears (lutur) the ether.

The term banam means body and represents the earth.
 

12 (2).jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)
 
One oral Myth of the Santal told us the mithologyc origin of the Dhrodo Banam
 
Once upon a time  lived an old couple.
They had seven sons and a daughter who was the youngest of all.
The sons used to go  hunting and the sister cooked meals for them.
Some time later the couple died.
All their sons and daughter came to a forest to live  in the same way as they used to live earlier, the sister cooked the meals and looked after the house while the seven brothers went hunting.
 
One day while their sister was cutting sin arak (leaf-vegetable), one of her fingers got cut, and the blood of the wound got mixed with the vegetable.
She cooked it and served it to her brothers after their return.
They found the vegetable delicious.
So they asked their sister how the vegetable became so tasty, and found that her blood had got mixed with it.
The eldest brother wondered that if her blood could make the food so delicious, how tasty would her flesh be.
So he decided to kill her and share her flesh with his brothers.
Her body was then cut in seven pieces and each brother received a piece.
Except the youngest brother, the other ate the sister's flesh, he went to a pond sadly with his share, the fish, the crab and all the other creatures of the place, seeing this asked him the reason of his sorrow.
The youngest brother narrated them the whole story, after that the creatures of the pond suggested him not to eat the flesh of his sister and instead to put it inside the mound of white ants.
Some year later, in the place grew  a huge guloic tree.
It started to grow beautifull flowers and a melodious sound was heard from the tree.
A jugi who often used to come to the tree for picking up flowers heard this melodious sound and remained astonished.
One day he decided to cut a brunch from the magic tree and with them he constructed the first  musical instrument the
DHODRO BANAM.
 
(Text resumed  from SANTHAL MUSIC Onkar Prasad 1985)
 
*************
 
Dancers, dressed with a Sari, analogous subject we can find   in  old photos of Elwin Verrier and  in the iconography of  some carved panels of the wedding palkee of the Santal Parganas tribe as well as of the Banam.
11.jpg

 (Photo Ethnoflorence)

The narrative typical carving of the panels, in low profile,  it is characterized by human figures in combined front profile view, limbs at times overlapped in telling gestures and lively actions of spontaneously formed group, and are based roughly on one groundline in common, in a cursive notation of figures, human and animal, more valuable and surely less expert, but according to Stella Kramrisch somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs.

10.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

DANCERS AND MUSICIANS

The Santal wedding  litter is called

 RAHI

and was made by tribal craftsmen themselves.

The RAHI was created with a certain amount of ceremony.

According to Verrier Elwin and Stella Kramrisch

 When work was started, two pigeons were sacrificed;

when it was completed the couple sat on it and were carried to the central Manjhithan where more pigeons or a goat were offered.

THE ACTIVITY OF CARVING WAS PART OF THE MARRIAGE    RITE,  AS    WAS THE PROCESSION     OF      THE  MARRIAGE  LITTER

The themes

The main subjects carved on the Rahi's panels are derived from the local ceremonies, such  as marriages, the Miths of the Santal creation, the totems devoted to the twelve Santal clans, the Santal Hul or Santali rebellion of 1855, and especially the everyday life scenes.

A part of these themes it's common with the carved top of the Banam.

 

  

dyn005_original_400_602_pjpeg_2592525_eb2cb763ec2b0a97b02d93581a669b50.jpg

 (Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

13.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

22.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

14.jpg

 (Photo Ethoflorence)

Dhodro Banam_1.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

The Santal

traditionally accompanied many of their dances with two kind of drums the

Tamak' and the Tumdak'

the kettle-drum 'nagara'

and  the

oboe 'shanai'

These musical traditions are reflects on the Banam lutes and Rahi panels

iconography

where

the dancers

are seldom accompanied by musicians too

 

DSCN7107.JPG

(Picture from Tribal Art of Middle India 1951 by Verrier Elwin)

 

33.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

dyn001_original_680_512_pjpeg_2592525_e0aba2c321c57b852aa360899dea390c.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

dyn002_original_640_480_pjpeg_2638188_e87409b263c850806b5f490e5650536e.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

dyn010_original_680_456_pjpeg_2592525_2a94c19faf8d32e643b9c6e222f9ae77.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

dyn010_original_680_466_pjpeg_2592525_a7f8e7873eb96ed385b3629e65cad31d.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sometimes musicians and dancers are accompanied also by acrobatic perfomers.

135.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

HORSES HORSEMEN AND ELEPHANTS

Another quite common iconography that we can find on the Rahi Panels is linked with the presence of elephants, horses and horsemen.

Sometimes these representations are  linked with the marriage procession.

It's possible to find carved  a similar iconography also on the top of  the Banam

 

Dhodro Banam_6(back).jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

Above

Exceptional iconography of a rider and horse on

the back carved top of a banam lute.

P1000174.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

17.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

39.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

P1000178.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A.M.)

 

 

DSCF3603.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

SACRO AND PROFANO

 

Bicycle.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

A mix of subjects is the iconographic base of this very interesting panel

HUNTING SCENES

1258560570.jpg

(Photo Courtesy A. M.)

 

4106938674.jpg

(Photo courtesy A. M.)

SANTAL HUL

 

148.jpg

(Photo  Ethnoflorence)

 

80.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

81.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

ANIMALIA AND EVERYDAY LIFE

 

Toddy Palm.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

1 (2).JPG

(Photo courtesy A.M.)

 

4125466665.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

*************

 

sketchesfromsant00pedeiala_0169.jpg

(Sketches from Santalistan, Pederson, Mathew A. 1913)

http://archive.org/details/sketchesfromsant00pede

 

The flute

held an important role in the music tradition of the Santal people.

DSCF4677 - Copia.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

3 flutes.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

flutes6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

DSCF4677.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Two flutes

of this particulary rich tipology are present also in the collection of the Musee de la Castre of Cannes.

 1992.16.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.16.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.17.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

1992.17.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

***********

CHADOR BADONI

 

Puppet small wodden idol

 

Definition from 

A vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

 

73924_171960832816631_100000081457478_594899_904374_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Khavadiya)

71761_171961089483272_100000081457478_594910_1082616_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

73844_171962069483174_100000081457478_594925_4013181_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171960996149948_100000081457478_594903_6726846_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171961002816614_100000081457478_594905_8328388_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy Sanatan Kavadiya)

 

puppets48.jpg

 

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

*****************

JADUPATUA

jadu = magician ; patua –or chitrakar- = painter

Santal Parganas

State of Bihar, India

(Text and pictures courtesy of  Herve Perdiolle)

 

 

Patuas and Jadupatuas from Bihar

(Creation of the world 1980)

 

The Jadu Patuas are painters and story tellers and go from village to village carrying their painted scrolls made of paper sheets sewn together with a bamboo stick on each extremity.

Jadu means "Magician".

The themes they represent on the scrolls are  about a dozen . However, there is different interpretation for each theme. A Jadu Patua can, looking at one scroll, say different stories depending if his audience is Hindu, Muslim or Santal. This last ethnic group is the most important audience for the Jadu Patuas.

 

The Patuas live with the money that the villagers give them after listening to their stories. The fact that they are magicians give a special effect to their intervention because the villagers fear them.

 

One of the most revealing images of the Jadu Patuas' role (in the Santal community) is the

 

"Mritu pat"

 

or

 

"image of the deaths"

 

. When somebody dies in a village near the Jadu Patua's one, the "artist magician" visits the family of the dead with a small and simple image (about 3 x 2 inches) which is supposed to represent the dead in a simple way.

 

Only the late person's pupil is missing.

 

Showing this image to the family, the Jadu Patua tells the story evoking the suffering of the dead whose soul is still trapped in hell.

 

The family then gives an offering to the Jadu Patua in order for him to intervene. The ritual for the Magician painter consists then to paint the dead's pupil in order to free his soul.

 

The principles developed by the Jadu Patuas are :

 

the Baha's feast

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

a strange mixture of Hindu and Santal myths showing a lot of festivities where tribal dances, sacrifices and drinking sessions scenes are mixed;

 

the creation of the world

(Anonyme, Création du monde, 1990, couleurs végétales sur papier, 20x420 cm)

where we can see the first human couple being born from the coupling of a goose and a gande;

 

the painting of Kali

lai scroll painting

(Anonyme, Kali pat, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 30x240 cm, collection privée.)

composed with 3 or 4 paper sheets only, showing Kali in her most terrifying aspects

 

and a lot of scrolls about

 

Yama

 

the god of hell (showing all the ill treatments, sometimes sexual, given by Yama and his servants to the dead who behaved badly during their lifetime).

 

It seems that the scarier the Jadu Patuas'style gets, the more highly he is regarded.

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

 

 

 

12/01/2012

CANNES MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES WWW.CANNES.COM LE SOUQUET VILLE DE CANNES

dyn001_original_640_480_pjpeg_2638188_a4b703398a75d2d1839e63dcb9285266[1].jpg

Musee de la Castre of Cannes

CANNES MUSEE DE LA CASTRE
Ville de Cannes.
Rens: 04 93 38 55 26 - www.cannes.com
Bus: 1,2,7, et 20, Arret "Souquet"

 Himalayan room, old stuff

see more on

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2009/10/11/mu...

NEW STUFF

SEE MORE

ON

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2009/12/27/mu...

nepal mask mask nepal mask.jpg

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2009/12/27/mu...

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