19/12/2011

TRIBAL PEOPLE: KHAS or KHUS an HIMALAYAN TRIBE in THE PEOPLE OF INDIA RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDISTAN LONDON 1868

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 - 2016

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KHAS or KHUS

an Himalayan Tribe

  in

THE PEOPLE OF INDIA RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDISTAN LONDON 1868 

 

THE 

PEOPLE OF INDIA.

A SERIES OF

PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS.

WITH DESCRIPTIVE LETTERPRESS,

OF

THE RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDUSTAN,

 

ORIGINALLY PREPARED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF

THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA,

AND

REPRODUCED BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR

INDIA IN COUNCIL.

EDITED BY

J. FORBES WATSON AND JOHN WILLIAM KATE

 

VOLUME ONE

 

LONDON 

INDIA MUSEUM,

1868

 

THE HIMALAYAN TRIBES

 

KHAS OR KHUS

 

 

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"THE Kas, or Khus, now the dominant population of Nepal, were, until 1816, the

ruling tribe of the entire tract from the Sutlej to the Teesta.

 

They are called Purbuttiah, or Highlander, from their residence in the Hills ; 

the term being chiefly confined to them, though equally applicable to other 

tribes similarly located.

 

Their aboriginal stock is Turaniam ; a fact, says Hodgson,

" inscribed in characters so plain upon their faces, forms, and languages, that 

we may well dispense with the vain attempt to trace it historically in the meagre 

chronicles of barbarism."

 

When the tide of Musulman conquest and bigotriy, from the twelfth century downwards, 

swept multitudes of the Brahmins from the plains into these hills, they endeavoured to

make the natives converts to Hinduism, and thus to confirm the fleeting influence

which their learning and refinement gave them over an illiterate and barbarous

population.

 

In order to secure their end, they granted to their earliest distinguished

converts, in defiance of the creed they taught, the lofty rank and honours of the

Khastriya order, which they also communicated to their progeny by the Hill-women.

 

Thus originated the now numerous, predominant, and extensively ramified tribe of

the Khas, which, favoured by the Brahminical system, became entirely devoted to

it.

 

Subduing the neighbouring tribes, they "gradually merged the greater part of

their own habits, ideas, and language, but not physiognomy, in those of the

Hindoos, and the Khas language became a corrupt dialect of Hindi," concealing

froom all but curious eyes its barbaric origin.

 

They are excellent soldiers, and form a considerable proportion of the Nipalese

(Goorkha) army.

 

Though more liable to Brahminical prejudices than other military

tribes of the country, they have no religious feelings which prevent them from

becoming excellent servants in arms, and they possess pre-eminently that masculine

energy of character and that love of enteiprise which distinguish so advantageously

the Nipal soldiery.

 

Despatching their meals in half-an-hour, and "satisfying the

ceremonial law by merely washing their hands and face, and taking off their turbans

before cooking, they laugh at the pharisaical rigour of our (Bengal) Sepoys, who

must bathe from head to foot and make puja ere they begin to dress their dinner,

must eat nearly naked in the coldest weather, and cannot be in marching trim

again in less than three hours. 

 

The former will carry several days' provisions on

their backs, the latter would deem such an act intolerably degrading."

 

The present royal family of Nipal belong to the Sahi, or Sah, branch of the

Khas."  

 

 

INDIA RELIGION SYMBOLS ICONOGRAPHY: ELEMENTS OF HINDU ICONOGRAPHY BY T. A. GOPINATHA RAO, M.A. MADRAS 1914

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

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ELEMENTS OF HINDU ICONOGRAPHY

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BY

T. A. GOPINATHA RAO, M.A.

Published under the patronage of the Government of His Highness

the Maharaja of Travancore.

MADRAS

1914

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 A SHORT RESUME OF THE CONTENTS

 

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 Ganapati, Vishnu, Dhruva-beras  

Dasavataras or the Ten Incarnations of Vishnu

Chaturvimsati-miirtayah,  Minor Forms of Vishnu

Purusha, Kapila, Yajnamurti, Vyasa,

Dhanvantarin, Dattatreya, Hari-barapitamaha,

Vaikuntha Trailokya-mohana

Ananta, Visvarupa, Lakshmi-Narayana,

Hayagriva, Adimurti, Jalasayin, Dharma,

Varadaraja, Ranganatha, Venkatesa,

Vithoba, Jagannatha, Nara-Narayana and Manmatha

Garuda and Ayudha-purushas 

Adityas, the Nava-grahas Devi, Srichakra, Devi, Durga 

Nilakanthi, Kshemankari, Harasiddhi, 

Vana-Darga, Agni-Durga, Jaya-Durga, Vindhyavasi

Durga, Ripumari-Durga, Mahishasuramarddani

or Katyayani, Chandika, Nanda,

Nava-Durgas, Bhadrakali, Mahakali

Amba, Ambika, Mangala, Sarvamangala

Kalaratri, Lalita, Gauri, Uma, Parvati

Rambha, Totala, Tripura, the eight Dvarapalakas

of the Gauri temple, Bhutamata,

Yoganidra, Vama, Jyeshtha, Raudri, Kali,

Kalavikarnika, Balavikarnika, Balapramathani

Sarvabhutadamani, Manonmani,

Varuril-Chamarida, Eakta-Chamunda,

Sivaduti, Yogesvari, Bhairavi, Tripura

Bhairavi, Siva, Kirti, Siddhi, Riddhi,

Kshama, Dipti, Rati, Sveta, Bhadra, Jaya,

Vijaya, Kali, Ghantakarni, Jayanti, Diti,

Arundhati, Aparajita, Surabhi, Krishna,

Indrakshi, Annapurna, Tulasidevi, Asvarudhadevi

Bhuvanesvari, Bala, Rajamatangi,

Lakshmi, Sri, Mahalakshmi, Bhumidevi,

Saraswati, Sapta-matrikas and Jyeshthadevi

 

A SHORT RESUME OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS

 

Yantras : A group of Salagramas and an

image of Eama made of a piece of salagrama

 

Saradadevi and Sankaracharya, Kaladi 

 

Bust of Chennakesava, Belur

 

Vishnu bathing Kachohhapesvara, Conjeevaram

 

Sarabhamurti, Tribhuvanam 

 

Trimurti with Siva as the central figure

 

Tiruvottiyur

 

Trimurti with Vishnu as the central figure, Nagalapuram 

 

Weapons held by images

 

Other objects held by images

 

Headgears and ornaments of images 

 

Hand-poses of images 

 

Seats of images 

 

Head-gears and hair knots of images

 

Unmatta-uchchhishta-Ganapati, Kaladi

 

Kevala-Ganapati, Trivandram

 

Lakshmi-Ganapati, Tenkasi

 

Uchchhisbta-Ganapati, Kumbhakonam 

 

Nanjangodu

 

Heramba-Ganapati, front view, Negapatam

 

Prasanna-Ganapati, Pattisvaram

 

Trivandram

 

Nritta-Ganapati, Halebidu

 

MadhyamaYogasthanakamurti, Mahabalipuram 

 

Bhogasthanakamurti, Madras Museum 

 

Adhama Bhogastankamurti, Tiruvottiyur

 

Bhogasthanakamurti, Madras Museum 

 

MadhyamaBhogasthanakamurti, Madras Museum

 

Yogasanamurti, Bagali

 

Bhogasanamurti, Badami

 

Bhogasanamurti, Dadikkombu 

 

Trivandram 

 

Yogasayanamurti, Trivandram 

 

Adbama Virasanamurti; Aihole 

 

Madhyama Yogasayanamurti, 

 

Uttama Bhogasayanamurti Rajaputana

 

The ten Avataras of Vishnu 

 

Varaha panel, Mahabalipuram 

 

Bhuvarahamurthi, Badami 

 

Varaha, Rajim, Raipur district

 

Varaha, Nagalapuram 

 

Phalodi, Jodhpur district,Marwar 

 

Lakshmi-Narasimha, Madras Museum 

 

Varaha, Belur 

 

Lakshmi-Narasimha Madras Mesum

 

Kevala-Narasimha, Halebidu 

 

Standing figure of Kevala-Narasimha, Badami 

 

Raghu-Rama, Shermadevi

 

Ramesvaram

 

Mahabalipuram 

 

Navanita-nrittamurti, Madras Museum 

 

Gana-Gopala, Halebidu 

 

Gana-Gopala

 

Madana-Gopala, Tenkasi 

 

Kaliyahimardaka Krishna, Madras Museum

 

Govarddhana-dhara Krishna, Nuggehalli

 

Balakrishna 

 

Vatapatrasayin 

 

Buddha, Borobudor

 

Chennakesavasvamin, Belur 

 

Madhava, Belur 

 

Govinda, Belur 

 

Madhusiudana, Belur 

 

Hari, Belur 

 

Sri Krishna, Belur

 

Hari-hara-pitamaha, Halebidu 

 

Dattatreya

 

Dattatreya, Badami 

 

Hari-hara-pitamaha, Ajmere, Rajaputana Museum 

 

Vaikunthanatha, Badami 

 

Hayagriva, Nuggehalli

 

Adimurti, Nuggehalli

 

Jalasayin, Halebidu

 

Varadaraja

 

Manmatha and Rati, Halebidu

 

Manmatha, Tenkasi 

 

Garuda , Badami 

 

Garuda, Palur 

 

Sudarsana-Chakra

 

Surya, Gudimallam 

 

Meicheri 

 

Madras Museum 

 

Surya, Rupnagar

 

Surya, Chitorgarh

 

Suryanarayana, Belur 

 

Surya, Madras Museum 

 

Torana of a Surya temple, .Junagarh Museum

 

The Nava-Grahas, Suryanarkoyil

 

Sricbakra 

 

Sringeri Matha 

 

Durga, Onakkur 

 

Mahabalipuram 

 

Durga, Mahabalipuram 

 

Durga panel, Mahabalipuram 

 

Katyayani or Mahisbasura-marddani,Madras Museum 

 

Durga, Conjeevaram 

 

Katyayani or Mahisbasura-marddani, Gaikondasolapuram,

 

Mahabalipuram 

 

Standing figure of Bhadrakali, Tiruppalatturai,

 

Mahakali, Madeyur 

 

Madras Museum 

 

AnnapiJrna, Trivandram

 

Sridevi, Mahabalipuram 

 

Lakshmi, Madeyur 

 

Sridevi, Trivandram

 

Sarasvati, Gadag

 

Sarasvati, Gaigaikondasolapuram 

 

Sarasvati, Bagali 

 

Sarasvati with a Vina, Halebidu 

 

Sarasvati dancing, Halebidu 

 

The Saptamatrika Group, Ellora

 

The Saptamatri Group, Belur 

 

Jyeshthadevi, Mylapore, Madras 

 

***

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*

 

 

18/12/2011

HIMALAYAN TRIBAL ART: THE LUTE OF THE HIMALAYAS AN HIDDEN HERITAGE

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

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THE LUTE OF THE HIMALAYAS

AN HIDDEN HERITAGE

PHOTO EDITED ON 'AMONG THE HIMALAYAS'

 By Major L. A. WADDELL

 

 WESTMINSTER ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & C o.

 

2 Whitehall Gardens 1899

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HINDU DEITIES IN SOUTHERN INDIA:Dravidian gods in modern Hinduism : a study of the local and village deities of southern India 1915

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

dravidiangodsinm00elmo_0033.jpg

2008 - 2016

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DRAVIDIAN GODS IN MODERN HINDUISM

 a study of the local and village deities of southern India 1915

by

Elmore Wilber Theodore

 Hamilton, N.Y.

1915

 dravidiangodsinm00elmo_0042.jpg

 INDEX OF THE CHAPTERS

 CHAPTER I

The Conquest of the Dravidians 

Origin of the Dravidians. The present Dravidians in South

India. Dravidians in the Rigveda. Political conquest of the

Dravidians. Absorption of the Dravidian religion by Hinduism.

dravidiangodsinm00elmo_0053.jpg

CHAPTER II 

General Features of Dravidian Worship 

Worship of Hindu gods. Dravidian temples and idols. Characteristics

of Dravidian gods. Their local origin. Bloody offerings to

them. Female deities.

dravidiangodsinm00elmo_0117.jpg

 CHAPTER III

 The Seven Sisters 

Who are the Seven Sisters? Poleramma ; her temple; ceremonies

in case of smallpox. General worship of Poleramma. Her connection

with Potu Razu. Ankamma; cruel features in her worship.

Muthyalamma. Her worship as a village deity. Dilli Polasi.

Her worship as a household goddess. Her public worship. Bangaramma;

variations in her worship. Mathamma and Matangi.

Mathamma as a Madiga deity. Choosing a Matangi. Ceremonies

of initiation. Duties of a Matangi. Renuka.

 

CHAPTER IV

 

Perantalu Worship 

Meaning of Perantalu. Perantalus in Matsavaram. Buchamma.

Lingamma. Usuramma. The worship of Usuramma.

 

CHAPTER V

 

The Saktis 

Meaning of sakfi. Sakti worship in the Tantras. Dravidian

Saktis. Worship of Saktis in connection with the village goddess.

Various Saktis. Kati Ankamma. Donga Sakti. Nadividhi

Sakti. Lambadi Sakti. Malayala Sakti and human sacrifice.

Kateri Sakti.

CHAPTER VI

Demon Possession 

Ceremonies for exorcising demons which cause sickness. Another

method of exorcism. Exorcism at Nattaryan Kovil temple.

 

CHAPTER VII

 

Kanaka Durgamma and Poshamma 

Reasons for worshiping Kanaka Durgamma. Ceremonies in the

village. In the grove. Family worship of Poshamma.

 

CHAPTER VIII

 

Local Origins of Dravidian Deities 

Importance of local legends. Origins of various deities. Buchamma.

Lingamma. Usuramma. Tota Kuramma. Demons at

Nattaryan temple. Kanaka Durgamma. Legend of a golden

horn. Gonti. Podilamma. Mundla Mudamma. Ladothamma.

Nagamma. Verdatchamma and the Cumbum tank. Bandlamma.

Kitsamma. Kurumayya. Mangamma. Sandamma and Gumpamma.

Vinukonda Ankamma. Akka Devatalu. KulagoUamma.

Kudullamma. These local legends a distinguishing feature.

 

CHAPTER IX

 

The Dravidian Gods in Hindu Legends 

Origin of the legends. The Siva legends. The one hundred and

one kings. Legend of Renuka and the ant hill. Marriage of

Minakshi. The Vishnu legends. Renuka. Potu Razu. The

Rakshasas. The original Sakti. Legends of Korlapati Ankamma.

Legends of Matangi.

 

CHAPTER X

 

The Shepherds' Purana 

The legend of Gangamma. Pedda Razu. Katama Razu. The

Virulu.

 

CHAPTER XI

 

Influence of Dravidian Deities upon Hinduism no

Influence on Hindu ritual. Counter influence of Hinduism on

Dravidian rites. Dravidian method of forming gods adopted by

Hinduism. Mala Konda Swami. Narayanaswami. Kotappa

Konda Swami. Venagopala Swami. Aranjothi. Brahmans as

pujaris. Brahmans and Matangi worship. Brahmans profiting

by connection with Dravidian worship.

 

CHAPTER XII

 

Pundamental Conceptions in Dravidian Worship 

Sources of information as to fundamental conceptions. Did Dravidian

sacrifices originate in totemism? Fetishism in the Dravidian

conception. Dravidian animism. Dravidian demonolatry. The

meaning of the images. The meaning of the sacrifices. Origin

of the Dravidian gods. Morality of the Dravidian religion.

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§§§

§§

§

 

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS SANTAL PARGANAS FOLKLORE A GLOSSARY OF THE SANTAL LANGUAGE.

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS SANTAL PARGANAS FOLKLORE A GLOSSARY OF THE SANTAL LANGUAGE.

 

SANTAL PARGANAS GLOSSARY , RESUMED FROM THE VOLUME

FOLKLORE OF THE SANTAL PARGANAS

TRANSLATED BY

CECIL HENRY BOMPAS

LONDON 1909

 

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FOR A RESUME OF THE INTRODUCTION OF THE BOOK SEE MORE ON

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2011/12/17/fo...

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS

 

 

 

more on

 

About the Santal Banam see more on:
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6109784/14-dhodr...
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6241521/art-et-musique-d... 
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6250339/art-et-musique-d... 
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/
About the Santal panels see more on:
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6221941/panneaux-de-pala...
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7109086/santal-p...
About the Santal flutes see more on:
 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6163132/4-tribal... .
About the Santal painted scrolls from Hervé Pedriolle collection  see more on:
http://santalparganas.blogspot.com/
About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing  by Mr Onkar Prasad  on:
http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01014.htm .
About the carved Santal doors see more on:
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/5546402/portes-santal--o...

 

§§§

 

§

 

 

 

RESUMED

GLOSSARY 

AND RESUMED CHAPTER OF THE BOOK

 

ADWA

 

Rice husked without having been boiled.

 

ARTA  

 

Red pigment applied for ornamental purpouse to the feet.

 

BAHA POROB 

 

Flower spring festival held about February.

 

BANDI

 

A straw rope receptacle for storing grain.

 

Bharia

 

A bamboo carried on the shoulder with a load slung at each end.

 

BHUT 

 

It's not an originally Santal word, it means ghost, harmful spirit.

 

BONGA 

 

The name used for all gods, godlings and supernatural beings. 

 

SING BONGA is the sun god ; the spirits of ancestors are

 

bongas, there are bongas of the hills, streams and the forest; 

 

others are like fairies and take human form. 

 

Sacrifices are offered to bongas on all occasions.

 

CHAMAR

 

A low caste, workers in leather.

 

CHANDO 

 

The sun, the supreme god of the Santals.

 

CHAMPA

 

A legendry country in which, according to their traditions, the Santals once lived.

 

CHARAK PUJA 

 

The festival in which men are swung by hooks from a pole.

 

CHADAR 

 

A festival at which dancing takes place round an umbrella.

 

CHOWKIDAR 

 

A watchman.

 

CHURIN

 

The spirit of a woman who has died while pregnant, her feet are turned

 

backwards. 

 

CHUMAURA 

 

A ceremony observed at marriage, and Sohrae festival.

 

DAIN

 

A witch. Witches are supposed to use their powers to cause sickness and death

 

women accused of witchcraft were often murdered.

 

DEHRI

 

The president of the annual hunt; he presides over the Court which during

 

the hunt hears appeals against unjust decisions of paganas.

 

DEWAN 

 

The chief minister of a Raja.

 

DHOBI 

 

A washerman.

 

DHOTI 

 

The waistcloth worn by men.

 

DONT 

 

A low caste, scavengers, basketmakers and drummers.

 

GAMCHA

 

A small piece of cloth worn round the neck, or when bathing.

 

GHAT

 

The approach to a pool or river at which people bathe ; the crossing place of a river.

 

GHORMUHA 

 

A horse-headed monster ; not a Santal name.

 

GOALA 

 

A man of the cow keeping caste.

 

GODET

 

The village constable, the official messenger of the headman.

 

GOONDLI

 

A small millet.

 

GOSAIN

 

A religious ascetic, usually of the Vishnuite persuasion.

 

GUPINL 

 

A celestial milkmaid, such as those who danced with Krishna ; not a Santal creation.

 

GUR

 

Juice of sugar cane, molasses.

 

HADI

 

A low caste of scavengers.

 

JAN or JAFT GURU. 

 

A witch finder. When a man is ill the Jan is consulted as to what witch is responsible. The Jan usually divines

 

by gazing at an oiled leaf.

 

JAHIRTHAN

 

The group of sacred trees left in each village for the accomodation of the spirits of the forest when the jungle

 

is cleared.

 

JAI TUK

 

A bullock given to a woman at her marriage.

 

JOGI or JUGI

 

A religious ascetic, a mendicant.

 

LOTA

 

A small brass water pot.

 

LAKH

 

One hundred thousand.

 

MAHADEO

 

The great god, Siva.

 

MAHAJAN

 

A moneylender.

 

MAHULI

 

A tribe akin to the Santals, basket makers by profession.

 

MALHAN

 

A cultivated leguminous plant.

 

MANHJHITHAN 

 

The little pavilion in the centre of every Santal village at which the spirits of

 

dead headmen are worshipped and where village councils are held.

 

MANTRA

 

An incantation, sacred or magic formula.

 

MARANG BURN

 

The great spirit, the original chief god of the Santals.

 

MARWARI

 

A trader from Rajputana and the adjoining parts.

 

MERAL

 

A small tree. Phyllanthus emblica.

 

MORE TUTUIKO

 

The five or six—certain Santal godlings.

 

MOIUAH

 

A tree, Bassia latifolia, the fleshy flower is eaten and spirit is distilled from it

 

MUSAHAR 

 

A semi-aborigenal caste which catches and eats rats.

 

NALA

 

A water course with steep banks.

 

NARTA

 

The namegiving ceremony observed three or five days after birth, by which the child is formally admitted into the tribe.

 

NINDA CHANDO

 

The moon godess, wife of Singchando the Sun god.

 

KAT

 

A dry measure used for grain.

 

KISAR BONGA 

 

A spirit which takes up its abode in the house, frolicsome and mischievous,Kisku One of the twelve exogamous septs

 

of Santals, by tradition it was formerly the royal sept.

 

KOERI 

 

A cultivating caste of Hindus.

 

KORA

 

A youth or young man, the hero of a story is often called so throughout, and I have for convenience adopted it as a proper name.

 

OJHA 

 

An exorcist, a charm doctor, one who counteracts the effects of witchcraft.

 

PACKET 

 

A place in the Manbhum district which the Santals occupied in the course of their immigrations.

 

PANCHYAT 

 

A council primarily of five which meets to decide a dispute.A

 

PAGRI

 

A cloth worn round the head, a turban.

 

PAKARJA

 

A hill man ; the Saurias or Male of the Rajmahal hills.

 

PAN

 

Betel used for chewing.

 

PARGANNCI

 

A Santal chief having jurisdiction over a number of villages.

 

PARANIC

 

The assistant headman of a village.

 

PARRAB

 

A festival.

 

PEEPIIL OR PIPAL 

 

A tree, ficus religiosa.

 

PILCHU HARARN 

 

The first man and woman.

 

RAIBAR

 

A marriage go-between, a man employed to arrange a marriage.

 

RAKAS

 

An ogre. Sanskrit Rakhshya,

 

RMN

 

To be possessed, to fall into a cataleptic state.

 

SABAI

 

A kind of grass used for making rope.

 

SAL

 

A forest tree. Shorea robusta.

 

SEER 

 

A weight, about two pounds.

 

SID ATANG 

 

To take the final step, to be completely initiated.

 

SING BONGA 

 

The Sun god.

 

SIPAHI 

 

An armed guard, a soldier, armed messenger.

 

SOHRAI 

 

The great winter festival of the Santals.

 

TAROP TREE 

 

A small tree, Buchanania latifolia.

 

JHAKUR 

 

The supreme Being.

 

TIKA

 

A mark on the forehead, the giving of which corresponds to coronation.

 

 

 

§§§

 

§§

 

§

 

 

 

A RESUME OF THE CHAPTERS OF THE BOOK

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

I. BAJUN AND JHORE 

 

II. ANUWA AND HIS MOTHER 

 

III. LEDHA AND THE LEOPARD 

 

IV. THE CRUEL STEPMOTHER 

 

V. KARMU AND DHARMU 

 

VI. THE JEALOUS STEPMOTHER 

 

VII. THE PIOUS WOMAN 

 

VIII. THE WISE DAUGHTER-IN-LAW 

 

IX. THE OILMAN AND HIS SONS 

 

X. THE GIRL WHO FOUND HELPERS 

 

XI. HOW TO GROW RICH 

 

XII. THE CHANGED CALF 

 

XIII. THE KOERI AND THE BARBER 

 

XIV. THE PRINCE WHO ACQUIRED WISDOM 

 

XV. THE MONKEY BOY 

 

XVI. THE miser's SERVANT 

 

XVII. KUWAR AND THE RAJAHS DAUGHTER 

 

XVIII. THE LAUGHING FISH 

 

XIX. HOW THE COWHERD FOUND A BRIDE 

 

XX. KARA AND GUJA 

 

XXI. THE MAGIC COW 

 

XXII. LITA AND HIS ANIMALS 

 

XXIII. THE BOY WHO FOUND HIS FATHER 

 

XXIV. THE oilman's BULLOCK 

 

XXV. HOW SABAI grass grew 

 

XXVI. THE merchant's SON AND THE RAJAH'S daughter 

 

XXVII. THE flycatcher's EGG Ill

 

XXVIII. THE WIFE WHO WOULD NOT BE BEATEN 

 

XXIX. SAHDE GOALA 

 

XXX. THE rajah's SON AND THE MERCHANT'S SON 

 

XXXI. THE POOR WIDOW 

 

XXXII. THE MONKEY AND THE GIRL 

 

XXXIII. RAMAI AND THE ANIMALS 

 

XXXIV. THE MAGIC BEDSTEAD 

 

XXXV. THE GHORMUHAS 

 

XXXVI. THE BOY WHO LEARNT MAGIC 

 

XXXVII. THE CHARITABLE JOGI 

 

XXXVIII. CHOTE AND MOTE 

 

XXXIX. THE DAYDREAMER 

 

XL. THE EXTORTIONATE SENTRY 

 

XLI. THE BROKEN FRIENDSHIP 

 

XLII. A STORY TOLD BY A HINDOO 

 

XLIII. THE RAIBAR AND THE LEOPARD 

 

XLIV. THE UNGRATEFUL SNAKE 

 

XLV. THE tiger's BRIDE 

 

XLVI. THE killing OF THE TIGER 

 

XLVII. THE DREAM 

 

XLVIII. THE KING OF THE BHUYANS 

 

XLIX. the FOOLISH SONS 

 

L. KORA AND HIS SISTER 

 

LI, A STORY ON CASTE 

 

LII. TIPI AND TEPA 

 

LIII. THE CHILD WITH THE EARS OF THE OX

 

LIV. THE CHILD WHO KNEW HIS FATHER 

 

LV. JOGESHWAR's MARRIAGE 

 

LVI. THE STRONG MAN 

 

LVII. THE rajah's ADVICE 

 

LVIII. THE FOUR JOGIS 

 

LIX. THE CHARITABLE RAJAH 

 

LX. A VARIANT.—THE WANDERING RAJA 

 

LXI. THE TWO WIVES 

 

LXII. SPANLING AND HIS UNCLES 

 

LXIII. THE SILENT WIFE 

 

LXIV. THE DUMB SHEPHERD 

 

LXV, THE GOOD DAUGHTER-IN-LAW 

 

LXVI. THE rajah's DREAM 

 

LXVII. THE MONGOOSE BOY 

 

LXVIII. THE STOLEN TREASURE 

 

LXIX. DUKHU AND HIS BONGA WIFE 

 

LXX. THE MONKEY HUSBAND 

 

LXXI. LAKHAN AND THE WILD BUFFALOES 

 

LXXII. THE BOY WITH THE STAG 

 

LXXIII. THE SEVEN BROTHERS AND THE BONGA GIRL. 

 

LXXIV. THE tiger's FOSTER CHILD 

 

LXXV. THE CATERPILLAR BOY 

 

LXXVI. THE MONKEY NURSEMAID 

 

LXXVII. THE V/IFE WHO COULD NOT KEEP A SECRET, 

 

LXXVIII. SIT AND LAKHAN 

 

LXXIX. THE RAJAH WHO WENT TO HEAVEN 

 

LXXX. SEVEN TRICKS AND SINGLE TRICK 

 

LXXXI. FULJHARI RAJAH 

 

LXXXII. THE CORPSE OF THE RAJAH'S SON 

 

LXXXIII. THE SHAM CHILD 

 

LXXXIV. THE SONS OF THE KHEROHURI-RAJAH 

 

LXXXV. THE DOG BRIDE 

 

LXXXVI. WEALTH OR WISDOM 

 

LXXXVII. A GOALA AND THE COW 

 

LXXXVIII. THE TELLTALE WIFE

 

LXXXIX. THE BRIDEGROOM WHO SPOKE IN RIDDLES

 

XC. THE LAZY MAN 

 

XCI. ANOTHER LAZY MAN 

 

XCII. THE widow's SON 

 

XCIII. THE BOY WHO WAS CHANGED INTO A DOG

 

XCIV. BIRLURI AND BIRBANTA 

 

XCV. THE KILLING OF THE RAKHAS 

 

XCVI. THE CHILDREN OF THE VULTURES 

 

XCVII. THE FERRYMAN 

 

XCVIII. CATCHING A THIEF 

 

XCIX. THE GRASPING RAJ All 

 

C. THE PRINCE WHO WOULD NOT MARRY 

 

CI. THE PRINCE WHO FOUND TWO WIVES 

 

CII. THE UNFAITHFUL WIFE 

 

CIII, THE INDUSTRIOUS BRIDE 

 

CIV, THE BOY AND HIS FATE 

 

CV. THE MESSENGERS OF DEATH 

 

CVI. THE SPEAKING CRAB 

 

CVII. THE LEOPARD OUTWITTED 

 

CVIII. THE WIND AND THE SUN 

 

CIX. THE COLDEST SEASON 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

ex. THE JACKAL AND THE CROW 

 

CXI. THE TIGER CUB AND THE CALF 

 

CXII. THE JACKAL AND THE CHICKENS 

 

CXIII. THE JACKAL PUNISHED 

 

CXIV. THE TIGERS AND THE CAT 

 

CXV. THE ELEPHANTS AND THE ANTS 

 

CXVI. A FOX AND HIS WIFE 

 

CXVII. THE JACKAL AND THE CROCODILES 

 

CXVIII. THE BULLFROG AND THE CRAB 

 

CXIX. THE HYENA OUTWITTED 

 

CXX. THE CROW AND THE EGRET 

 

CXXI. THE JACKAL AND THE HARE 

 

CXXII. THE BRAVE JACKAL 

 

CXXIII. THE JACKAL AND THE LEOPARDS 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

CXXIV. THE FOOL AND HIS DINNER 

 

CXXV. THE STINGY DAUGHTER 

 

CXXVI. THE BACKWARDS AND FORWARDS DANCE 

 

CXXVII. THE DEAF FAMILY 

 

CXXVIII. THE FATHER-IN-LAW'S VISIT 

 

CXXIX. RAMAI AND SOMAI 

 

CXXX. THE TWO BROTHERS 

 

CXXXI. THE THREE FOOLS 

 

CXXXII. THE CURE FOR LAZINESS 

 

CXXXin. THE brahmin's POWERS 

 

cxxxiv. ram's wife 

 

CXXXV. PALO 

 

cxxxvi. the women's sacrifice 

 

cxxxvii, the thief's son 

 

CXXXVIII. THE divorce 

 

cxxxix. the father and the father-in-law 

 

cxL. the reproof 

 

CXLI. enigmas 

 

CXLII. THE too particular WIFE 

 

CXLIII. THE PAHARIA SOCIALISTS 

 

CXLIV. HOW A TIGER WAS KILLED 

 

CXLV, THE GOALA'S DAUGHTER 

 

CXLVI. THE brahmin's CLOTHES 

 

CXLVII. THE WINNING OF THE BRIDE

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

CXLVIII. MARRIAGE WITH BONGAS 

 

CXLIX. THE BONGA HEAVEN 

 

CL. LAKHAN AND THE BONGA

 

CLI. THE HOUSE BONGA 

 

CLII. THE SARSAGUN-MAIDEN 

 

CLIII. THE SCHOOLBOY AND THE BONGA 

 

CLIV. THE BONGA'S CAVE 

 

CLV. THE BONGA's VICTIM

 

CLVI. BAIJAL AND THE BONGA 

 

CLVII. RAMAI AND THE BONGA 

 

CLVIII. THE BOUNDARY BONGA 

 

CLIX. THE BONGA EXORCISED 

 

 

 

PART V

 

 

 

CLX. THE BEGINNING OF THINGS 

 

CLXI. CHANDO AND HIS WIFE 

 

CLXII. THE SIKIIAR RAJAH 

 

CLXIII. THE ORIGIN OF TOBACCO 

 

CLXIV. THE TRANSMIGRATION OF SOULS 

 

CLXV. THE NEXT WORLD 

 

CLXVI. AFTER DEATH 

 

CLXVII. HARES AND MEN 

 

CLXVIII. A LEGEND 

 

CLXIX. PREGNANT WOMEN 

 

CLXX. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MOON 

 

CLXXI. ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN 

 

CLXXII. THE DEAD 

 

CLXXIII, A HUNTING CUSTOM 

 

 

 

PART VI

 

 

 

CLXXIV. WITCHCRAFT 

 

CLXXV. OF DAINS AND OJHAS 

 

CLXXVI. INITIATION INTO WITCHCRAFT 

 

CLXXVII. WITCH CRAFT 

 

CLXXVIII. WITCH STORIES 

 

CLXXIX. WITCH STORIES 

 

CLXXX. WITCH STORIES 

 

CLXXXI. THE TWO WITCHES 

 

CLXXXII. THE SISTER-IN-LAW WHO WAS A WITCH 

 

CLXXXIII. RAMJIT BONGA

 

CLXXXIV. THE HERD BOY AND THE WITCHES 

 

CLXXXV. THE MAN-TIGER

 

 

 

§§§

 

§§

 

§

 

 

SOME SOUTH INDIAN VILLAGES by GILBERT SLATER LONDON 1918

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ART

2008 2016

***************************

SOME SOUTH INDIAN VILLAGES

by GILBERT SLATER LONDON

1918

  

SOME SOUTH INDIAN

VILLAGES

ECONOMIC STUDIES

EDITED BY

GILBERT SLATER 

Professor of Indian Economics University of Madras

 HUMPHREY MILFORD

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON, BOMBAY, MADRAS, NEW YORK

1918

somesouthindianv00slatiala_0030[1].jpg

A RESUME OF THE LIST OF THE BOOK'S CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

 

SCHEME FOR SURVEY OF A RYOTWARI VILLAGE 

VADAMALAIPURAM, RAMNAD DISTPTCT, by K. Ramachandran

GANGAIKONDAN, TINNEVELLY DISTRICT, by P. S. Lokanath

PALAKKURICHI, TANJORE DISTRICT, by K. Soundara Rajulu 

DUSI, NORTH ARGOT DISTRICT, by P. Krishnama 'Acharya 

THETTUPALLI, CHITTOOR DISTRICT, by E. Krishnamurti

GOWNIPALLE, MYSORE STATE, by, E. Krishnamurti 

VUNAGATLA, KlSTNA DISTRICT, by K. S. Narayana Murti

WATAKANCHERY, COCHIN STATE, by S. Subbarama Aiyar. 

GURUVAYUR, MALABAR DISTRICT, by V. Lakshmana Aiyar 

KOTHACHIRA, MALABAR DISTRICT, by A. Krishna Wariyar 

VATANAMKURUSSI, MALABAR DISTRICT, by N. Sundara Aiyar

SUMMARISED SURVEYS, by V. Venkataraman, P. S. Lokanathan,

Joseph A. Pinto, K. N. Krishna Aiyar, B. Lakshminarayana

Sastri, K. Ramachandran, C. A. Tirumalai, S. Vaidyanathan 

 

ILLUSTRATIONS

 

PlCOTTAH AND IMPROVED BULLOCK LIFT, USED IN SOUTH ARCOT

A SPLENDID CROP OF SUGAR-CANE

HARVESTING PADDY

TREADING OUT THE CORN (PADDY) 

KABALAIS NOT AT WORK

KABALAI AND PlCOTTAH IN SAME WELL 

A SPLENDID CROP OF RAGI 

A GOOD CROP OF CHOLAM 

TlNNEVELLY CART TAKING COTTON TO MARKET LOAD ABOUT 10 CWT

UPROOTING PADDY SEEDLINGS FOR TRANSPLANTATION 

TRANSPLANTING PADDY, CROP OF SUNN-HEMP GROWN FOR GREEN MANURE IN BACKGROUND 

GREEN MANURE ON PADDY LAND, APPROACH TO THETTUPALLI 

KABALAI AT WORK, THETTUPALLI VILLAGE, AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS USED IN THETTUPALLI 

OIL MILL IN THETTUPALLI 

VILLAGE OF THETTUPALLI

SUGAR-CANE CRUSHING 

MAP OF VUNAGATLA Ill

ROOFING A HUT WITH PALMYRA LEAVES 

COURTYARD OF NAMBUDRI HOUSE 

GUEST CHAMBER OF NAMBUDRI HOUSE 

GROUP OF NAMBUDRI BRAHMANS 

LEVELLING BOARD AT WORK 

CHERUMA HUT NEAR TRICHUR, COCHIN STATE 

" RATANAM," A FORM OF WATER-LIFT (TIRUVALLUR) 

HARVESTING PADDY IN NORTH MALABAR, FIELDS STILL WET 

PEPPER GARDEN IN MALABAR 

IMPLEMENTS USED IN GODAVARI DIS FRICT 

KARIM," WATER-LIFT USED IN GOPAVARI DELTA 

 

 

 

SOUTH-INDIAN IMAGES OF GODS AND GODDESSES H. KRISHNA SASTRI, B.A., RAO SAHEB MADRAS GOVERNMENT PRESS 1916

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 - 2016

****************************

SOUTH-INDIAN IMAGES OF GODS AND GODDESSES

 

BY

 

H. KRISHNA SASTRI, B.A., RAO SAHEB

 

Assistant Archeealogical Superintendent for Epigraphy,

Southern Circle.

 

Published under the authority of the Government of Madras

 

MADRAS GOVERNMENT PRESS

 

1916

 

1.jpg

2.jpg

INDEX OF THE CHAPTERS AND A RESUME OF THE SUBJECTS IN THE ILLUSTRATIONS

 

CHAPTER I.

 

Temples and images, the subject of Agamas and Silpa-Sastras origin of

stone temples in the Pallava period. Their development

in the Chola period . Signs to distinguish a Saiva temple from a

Vaishnava temple ; ritual generally followed in temples ; annual

festivals. Ritual in temples of village-deities 

 

CHAPTER II.

 

BRAHMA

 

Not worshipped as the chief deity in a temple ; his images and general

description  Various forms

 

CHAPTER III

 

VISHNU

 

His general description , Incarnations  Boar incarnation and

the reverence paid to it by the early South-Indian kings . Manlion

incarnation and its varieties . Dwarf incarnation 

Rama incarnation . Krishna incarnation and varieties 

Buddha and Kalki incarnations. Anantasayin, Padmanabha or

Ranganatha. Jalasayana, Vaikuntha-Nartyana, Lakshml-

Narayana, Garuda-Narayana and Yogesvara- Vishnu ( The 24

general forms of Vishnu ; Panduranga, Hayagriva and Venkatesa

Pradyumna or Manmatha, Vishvaksena and Garuda 

Hanuman, Sudarsana, Saligraw a stones 

 

CHAPTER IV

 

SIVA

 

His temples and their non-sectarian nature liuga, symbol of Siva ;

its significance, description and varieties . Subsidiary images

in a Siva temple ; importance attached to his sportive forms 

The general form Rudramurti ; its description and varieties ; Panchadehamurti

and Maha-Sadasiva; .several dancing postures 

The Chidambaram temple ; its history 

Dakshinamurti and his various forms, Lingodbhava 

Bhikshatana and Mohin!,  Kalyanasundaramurti

Somaskanda and allied forms 

Vrisharudha, Chandrasekharamurti, Ardhanari

Harihara, Gajahamurti, Gangadhara 

Kalaharamurti , Nilakantha , Tripurantakamurti

Kiratarjunamurti, Chandesanugrahamurti 

Sarabhamurti, Pasupatamurti, Rakshoghnamurti, Aghoramurti,

Bhairava and his various forms, Mahakala and Kalagni-

Rudra, Virabhadra and his various forms, Kshetrapala

Chandesa, Nandisa, Ehringisa and Jvaradeva 

Ganapati and his various forms ; his popularity  Skanda and

his different forms ; the antiquity of his worship 

 

CHAPTER V

 

SAKTI-GODDESSES

 

Their significance. Their division into three classes and their

worship on chakras, yuntras and plthas. Sarasvati and her

different forms. Lakshmi and her different forms 

The eight energies of Vishnu personified . General description

of Gauri or Parvati . The Saptamatrikas . Sakti goddesses

holding Vaishnavite symbols : Chamnnda, Durga, Mahishasuramardini

and Maha-Lakshmi, Kalaratrl, Tvarita, Tripura-

Bhairavi, VajraprastarinI, Sura, Surapriya, SrividyadevI, Pranasakti,

SvasthavesinI, Satruvidhvamsini, Ugra-Tara, Dhumravati, Sulini,

Pratyangira, Sltaladevi, Trikantakldevi, Bhutamata and SivadutI

Jyeshtha-Lakshmi, Bala-Tripurasundari, Saubhagyabhuvanesvari,

Annapurna, Gayatri, Savitrl and Sarasvati, Tulaja-

Bhavani, Rajaniatangi, Laghusyamala, Varuni, Kurukulla and

Vindhyavasini, Lalita, Tripurasundari and Rajarajesvari;

their worship on Bala-yantra vxd. Sri-chakra

 

CHAPTER VI

 

VILLAGE DEITIES

 

Their origin traceable to Tantrik goddesses ; names of a few of them

Their worship and worshippers, Ceremonies peculiar

to temples of village deities ; Draupadi temples a.ndaragam,

Sati-worship and the fire-walking ceremony, Village gods :

Aiyanar and Karuppannasami, Hero-worship; devil-dances

 

CHAPTER VI

 

VILLAGE DEITIES

 

Their origin traceable to Tantrik goddesses ; names of a few of them

Their worship and worshippers. Ceremonies peculiar

to temples of village deities ; Draupadi temples a.ndaragam 

Sati-worship and the fire-walking ceremony . Village gods :

Aiyanar and Karuppannasami , Hero-worship; devil-dances

 

CHAPTER VII

 

MISCELLANEOUS DEITIES

 

The nine Planets, The Sun ; his description and the Siifya-yantra 

The Moon and the other Planets, The Dikpalakas :

Indra, Agni, Yama, Nairrita, Varuna, Vayu and Kubera. The

Nagas. The demi-gods : Yakshas, Vidyadharas, etc., and

Dvarapalas. Saints and sages. The three religious

reformers ; Saiva and Vaishnava saints, Jaina images

Pedestals, postures, symbols, weapons and jewellery of

images

 

§§§

§§

§

 

3.jpg

LIST OF THE PLACE TEMPLES SHRINES GODS AND GODDESSES

PRESENT IN THE ILLUSTRATIONS

 

The Tanjore temple.

Gopura, Narasimha temple,Back view of central shrine, Siva temple, 

Gangaikondasolapuram, Haridranadi tank ;Processional images (metal) ; Madura 

Lamp patterns and /w/Vf-utensils ; Uttattur

Brahma; Seven Pagodas, Kumbakonam, Tiruvadi, Brahma and Sarasvati ; Kandiyur

Brahma on swan vehicle ; Chidambaram 

Vishnu (Ashtabhuja) ; Conjeeveram

Vishnu; Bellary,  Paramesvaramangalam

Vishnu and his consorts ; Ariyambakkam

Boar incarnation of Vishnu ; Seven Pagodas 

Narasimha bursting forth from the pillar; Ahobalam 

Ugra-Narasimha 

Madras Museum, Yoga-Narasimha ; Tir,upati Hill 

Trivikrama ; Seven Pagodas 

Kumbakonam,  Vamana ; Namakkal,  Rama and group (metal) ; Ramesvaram

Krishna tied to a mortar ; Penukonda

Butter-dance of Bala-Krishna (metal) ; Madras Museum 

26. Serpent-dance of Kaliya-Krishna (metal) 

Venu-Gopala,  Madana-Gopala ;Little Conjeeveram, Govardhana-Krishna ; Seven Pagodas 

Krishna on the punnai-tieQ (wood) ; Kumbakonam 

Parthasarathi teaching Bhagavad-Gitdto Arjuna ; Pushpagiri

Anantasayin ; Seven Pagodas, Vaikuntha-Narayana ; Namakkal 

Lakshmi-Narayana ; Namakkal, Garuda-Narayana; Chidambaram 

Garuda-Narayana and Gajendramoksha ; Kumbakonam 

Yogesvara-Vishnu ; Huvinahadagalli 

Kumbakonam,  Panduranga; Tirupati, Ahobalam 

Rati-Manmatha ; Chidambaram 

Garuda ; Tanjore, Sudarsana ; Tirupati

Dadikkombu,  Sahasra-linga ; Tiruvottiyur 

Panchamukha-linga ; Tiruvanaikkaval 

Nataraja (metal) ; Panchanadakkulam 

Ramesvaram,  Urdhva-tandava ; Tiruppanandal 

Patanjali; Chidambaram 

Vyaghrapada, Kalika-tandava (metal) ; Nallur 

Dakshinamurti ; Avur 

Vlnadhara-Dakshinamurti ; Chidambaram 

Yoga-Dakshinamurti ; Conjeeveram 

Dakshinamurti ; Tiruvengavasal 

Lingodbhava ; Tanjore,  Ekapada-Trimurti ; Tiruvottiyur 

Tiruvanaikkaval,  Mohini (metal) ; Valuvur 

Bhikshatanamurti (metal), Kankalamurti (metal); Tenkasi 

Kankalamurti ; Dharasuram, Kalyana-Sundara ; Madura 

Kalyana-Sundara and Svayamvara ; Chidambaram

Somaskanda (metal) ; Sivankudal, Somaskanda ; Seven Pagodas 

Umasahita, Vrishavahana ; Chidambaram, (metal) ; Vedaranyam

Chandrasekhara (metal) , Tiruvottiyur 

Chandrasekhara ; Tanjore 

Chandrasekhara (Alinganamurti) ; Bagali 

Ardhanari ; Madura,  Kumbakonam,  Ardhanari ; Tanjore,

Tiruchchengodu, , Dharasuram, Tiruvadi, Sankaranarayana ; Namakkal

Gajahamurti ; Dharasuram, , Tirutturaippundi

Gangadhara ; Gangaikondasolapuram, (metal) ; Vaidlsvarankoyil 

Gangadhara ; Tanjore 

Trichinopoly, , Kalaharamurti ; Pattisvaram,

Chandragiri, Tripurantakamurti ; Chidambaram, Kiratarjunamurti ; Pushpagiri, Chidambaram

Chandesanugrahamurti ; Gangaikondasolapuram 

Sarabhamurti ; Dharasuram, , Pasupatamurti . Chidambaram 

Aghoramurti ; Pattisvaram, , Bhairava

Kala-Bhairava ; Durgi 

Kalagni-Rudra,  Virabhadra throwing the head of Daksha into the fire

Tanjore, Virabhadra; Mudikondam,  Kshetrapala ; Tiruvarangulam 

Chandesa ; Tiruvottiyur, Nandisa and his consort (metal) ; Valuvur 

Bhringi ; Srisailam, Jvaradeva ; Bhavani, Ganapati standing ; Lepakshi 

Pattisvaram, Siyamangalam, Gangaikondasolapuram 

Maha-Ganapati ; Madura,  Heramba-Ganapati (metal) ; 

Skanda ; Tiruvottiyur ; Madura ,  Skanda and his consorts ; Samayapuram 

Chidambaram,  Sarasvati ; Bagali Samilnya-Lakshmi ; Seven Pagodas 

Parvati; Bolumampatti, Paramesvaramangalam,  Pattisvaram

The Seven Mothers ; Tanjore ,Chamunda (Mahakali) ; Tiruchchengodu

Durga ; Seven Pagodas ,Srimushnam

Dharasuram, Durga-Lakshml Tirumalisai, Mahishasuramardini ; Gangaikondasolapuram

Dharasuram, Durgi, Durga-Mahishasuramardim ; Seven-Pagodas

Pratyangira ; Tiruchchengodu ,  Tiruppalatturai

Jyeshtha ; Tiruvellavayil, Saubhagyabhuvanesvan ; Dharasuram

Rajarajesvarl ; Ramesvaram, Mutyalamma ; Avani 

Group of images in the Draupadi-amman temple Kumbakonam 

Aiyanar (metal) ; Tiruppalatturai , Valuvur

Ramesvaram, Surya ; Kumbakonam , Chidambaram

Rahu and Ketu ; Chidambaram Indra, Agni, Yama, Nairrita

Varuna, Vayu, Kubera, Ahobalam, Lepakshi, Adisesha ; Chidambaram, Kinnari ; Ramesvaram

Dvarapala ; Tiruvottiyur, Dharasuram , Narada ; Chidambaram 

Gaulisvara (Gaudapada ?) and Sankaracharya ; Tiruvottiyur

 

§§§

§§

§

 

CASTES AND TRIBES OF SOUTHERN INDIA EDGAR THURSTON 1909 *

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 - 2016

CASTES AND TRIBES OF SOUTHERN INDIA EDGAR

THURSTON 1909

 1.jpg

by

 

EDGAR THURSTON, 

 

Superintendent, Madras Government Museum ; Correspondant Etranger,

Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris ; Socio Corrispondante,

Societa Romana di Anthropologia.

 

ASSISTED BY

K. RANGACHARI

of the 

Madras Government Museum

 

GOVERNMENT PRESS, MADRAS

 

1909

 

***

**

*

09/07/2011

NEPAL EXPEDITIONS: TUCCI GIUSEPPE TUCCI NEPAL ALLA SCOPERTA DEI MALLA 1960 BARI LEONARDO DA VINCI editrice

NEPAL

ALLA SCOPERTA DEI MALLA

GIUSEPPE TUCCI

LEONARDO DA VINCI

EDITRICE

1960

 

01.jpg

***

 

26/06/2011

HIMALAYAN TRIBAL ARTS: NOTES PRELIMINAIRES SUR LE DIEU MASTA MARC GABORIEAU LE REVUE DU MUSEE DE L'HOMME 1969

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

masta02.jpg

?s=MARC+GABORIEAU

2008 - 2016

*********************************

NOTES PRELIMINAIRES

SUR LE DIEU MASTA

MARC GABORIEAU

Objets et Mondes

La Revue du Musee de L'Homme

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

READ THE ARTICLE HERE

?s=MARC+GABORIEAU

 0`1.jpg

Tome IX Fasc.1        Printemps 1969

***