05/04/2012

TRIBAL ARTS OF THE SANTAL PEOPLE

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS

*

This page could not be possible 

without the precious contribute

of  pictures

by

COLLECTION MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES  © PHOTO CLAUDE GERMAIN

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

http://www.nepaltribalart.com/index.asp?p=65

ROBERT BRUNDAGE PETALUMA CA

http://www.artyeti.com/

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/

FREDERIC ROND PARIS

http://www.indianheritage.biz/

HERVE PERDIOLLE PARIS

http://herveperdriollecv.blogspot.com/

MORDACCI  COLLECTION

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/a-m-collection-all-ri...

SANATAN KAVADIYA NEW DELHI

http://www.tribalartsindia.com/

RICHARD LAIR

and text 

by

ELIO REVERA BRESCIA

http://artidellemaninere.forumattivo.it/f8-love-driven-ch...

ETHNOFLORENCE

*******

An online

vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

ON

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

*****

Mus+®e de la Castre_Cannes_1991.21.1.jpg

 

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

*

"...une vièle Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, évocateur. 

 

Sa présence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. 

 

Ce petit chef-d'oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  

 

C'est bien ici l'exemple d'un objet  d'artisanat, échappant  à son usage pour accéder à l'intemporel".

 

Pierre  Fernandez   Arman

on  

"Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d'Aquisitions d'Art Primitif

du

Musée de la Castre" 

Cannes

l.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Perché ci circondiamo di bellezza?

E perché questo circondarci non ci ha mai appagato, noi uomini, di ogni dove e di ogni tempo?

Per una semplice ed insieme cogente motivazione: perché ne abbiamo bisogno!

 

Guardo questo oggetto che cari amici hanno avuto l’ardire di porre sotto i miei occhi; l’ardire, perché conoscono la mia limitata cultura ed il mio sconfinato amore per le produzioni artistiche di un altro continente.

 

Ma la loro è una sfida vinta in partenza: questa straordinaria creazione, l’immagine di questa fanciulla dai seni puntuti e da un’ incredibile quanto armoniosa corolla, mi ha conquistato al primo sguardo.

 

Non ha importanza cosa sia.

 

Io ne ammiro le purissime forme, ancestrali, evocative, ardite e stupefacenti: ed i miei sensi sono appagati da quella Dea misteriosa e sublime….avita e sconosciuta: la dea della Bellezza che in ogni cultura ha ricevuto nomi diversi, ma dovunque ha lascito profondissima traccia di sé, col suo passo lieve ed incorporeo.

 ( Elio Revera, socioanalista)

 

Dhodro Banam_5 - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

The Santal

carved

their one stringed lutes sometimes in the shape of  a woman,

transfigurating the resonance of the instrument

into

rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by simplifications and distortions demanded by the

shape of the instrument.

 

5.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

The prophetic head

with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the turning keyes as a kind of ear ornament,

carried aloft on a neck of inordinate length,

is a noble mask.

Through its thin lipped mouth

a

god may speak.

 

dyn007_original_680_606_pjpeg_2592525_3c4d9cdc1f07f7b2d46d9ac58b46f980.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sound and mask,

the prophetic voice

which speaks through mask and instrument,

link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation

of the numinous.

Resume from

Stella Kramrisch

(Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and Village)

 

6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

The Santals

believe

in the magical powers of this musical instrument,

a medium between the human beings and the supernatural.

 

k.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

 

w.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

The Banam

resume

in its various parts the anatomy of an human being:

head, ears, neck, chest and stomach.

The string

is the most important part of the instrument,

because it unites the other parts of the liute together, it's considered as the

breadth

of the Banam.

 

Immagine 002

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

The Head (Bonok) of the instrument represents the Space.

Neck (hatok) and chest (koram) are directly connected with the Respiration and represents the equivalent natural element of the Air.

The stomach (lac) represents the fire.

The ears (lutur) the ether.

The term banam means body and represents the earth.
 

12 (2).jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)
 
One oral Myth of the Santal told us the mithologyc origin of the Dhrodo Banam
 
Once upon a time  lived an old couple.
They had seven sons and a daughter who was the youngest of all.
The sons used to go  hunting and the sister cooked meals for them.
Some time later the couple died.
All their sons and daughter came to a forest to live  in the same way as they used to live earlier, the sister cooked the meals and looked after the house while the seven brothers went hunting.
 
One day while their sister was cutting sin arak (leaf-vegetable), one of her fingers got cut, and the blood of the wound got mixed with the vegetable.
She cooked it and served it to her brothers after their return.
They found the vegetable delicious.
So they asked their sister how the vegetable became so tasty, and found that her blood had got mixed with it.
The eldest brother wondered that if her blood could make the food so delicious, how tasty would her flesh be.
So he decided to kill her and share her flesh with his brothers.
Her body was then cut in seven pieces and each brother received a piece.
Except the youngest brother, the other ate the sister's flesh, he went to a pond sadly with his share, the fish, the crab and all the other creatures of the place, seeing this asked him the reason of his sorrow.
The youngest brother narrated them the whole story, after that the creatures of the pond suggested him not to eat the flesh of his sister and instead to put it inside the mound of white ants.
Some year later, in the place grew  a huge guloic tree.
It started to grow beautifull flowers and a melodious sound was heard from the tree.
A jugi who often used to come to the tree for picking up flowers heard this melodious sound and remained astonished.
One day he decided to cut a brunch from the magic tree and with them he constructed the first  musical instrument the
DHODRO BANAM.
 
(Text resumed  from SANTHAL MUSIC Onkar Prasad 1985)
 
*************
 
Dancers, dressed with a Sari, analogous subject we can find   in  old photos of Elwin Verrier and  in the iconography of  some carved panels of the wedding palkee of the Santal Parganas tribe as well as of the Banam.
11.jpg

 (Photo Ethnoflorence)

The narrative typical carving of the panels, in low profile,  it is characterized by human figures in combined front profile view, limbs at times overlapped in telling gestures and lively actions of spontaneously formed group, and are based roughly on one groundline in common, in a cursive notation of figures, human and animal, more valuable and surely less expert, but according to Stella Kramrisch somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs.

10.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

DANCERS AND MUSICIANS

The Santal wedding  litter is called

 RAHI

and was made by tribal craftsmen themselves.

The RAHI was created with a certain amount of ceremony.

According to Verrier Elwin and Stella Kramrisch

 When work was started, two pigeons were sacrificed;

when it was completed the couple sat on it and were carried to the central Manjhithan where more pigeons or a goat were offered.

THE ACTIVITY OF CARVING WAS PART OF THE MARRIAGE    RITE,  AS    WAS THE PROCESSION     OF      THE  MARRIAGE  LITTER

The themes

The main subjects carved on the Rahi's panels are derived from the local ceremonies, such  as marriages, the Miths of the Santal creation, the totems devoted to the twelve Santal clans, the Santal Hul or Santali rebellion of 1855, and especially the everyday life scenes.

A part of these themes it's common with the carved top of the Banam.

 

  

dyn005_original_400_602_pjpeg_2592525_eb2cb763ec2b0a97b02d93581a669b50.jpg

 (Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

13.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

22.jpg

 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

14.jpg

 (Photo Ethoflorence)

Dhodro Banam_1.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

The Santal

traditionally accompanied many of their dances with two kind of drums the

Tamak' and the Tumdak'

the kettle-drum 'nagara'

and  the

oboe 'shanai'

These musical traditions are reflects on the Banam lutes and Rahi panels

iconography

where

the dancers

are seldom accompanied by musicians too

 

DSCN7107.JPG

(Picture from Tribal Art of Middle India 1951 by Verrier Elwin)

 

33.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

dyn001_original_680_512_pjpeg_2592525_e0aba2c321c57b852aa360899dea390c.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

dyn002_original_640_480_pjpeg_2638188_e87409b263c850806b5f490e5650536e.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

dyn010_original_680_456_pjpeg_2592525_2a94c19faf8d32e643b9c6e222f9ae77.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

 

dyn010_original_680_466_pjpeg_2592525_a7f8e7873eb96ed385b3629e65cad31d.jpg

(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sometimes musicians and dancers are accompanied also by acrobatic perfomers.

135.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

HORSES HORSEMEN AND ELEPHANTS

Another quite common iconography that we can find on the Rahi Panels is linked with the presence of elephants, horses and horsemen.

Sometimes these representations are  linked with the marriage procession.

It's possible to find carved  a similar iconography also on the top of  the Banam

 

Dhodro Banam_6(back).jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

Above

Exceptional iconography of a rider and horse on

the back carved top of a banam lute.

P1000174.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

 

17.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

39.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

P1000178.JPG

(Photo courtesy of A.M.)

 

 

DSCF3603.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

SACRO AND PROFANO

 

Bicycle.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

A mix of subjects is the iconographic base of this very interesting panel

HUNTING SCENES

1258560570.jpg

(Photo Courtesy A. M.)

 

4106938674.jpg

(Photo courtesy A. M.)

SANTAL HUL

 

148.jpg

(Photo  Ethnoflorence)

 

80.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

81.jpg

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

ANIMALIA AND EVERYDAY LIFE

 

Toddy Palm.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals - Copia.jpg

(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

 

Animals.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

1 (2).JPG

(Photo courtesy A.M.)

 

4125466665.jpg

(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

*************

 

sketchesfromsant00pedeiala_0169.jpg

(Sketches from Santalistan, Pederson, Mathew A. 1913)

http://archive.org/details/sketchesfromsant00pede

 

The flute

held an important role in the music tradition of the Santal people.

DSCF4677 - Copia.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

 

3 flutes.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

flutes6.jpg

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

 

DSCF4677.JPG

(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Two flutes

of this particulary rich tipology are present also in the collection of the Musee de la Castre of Cannes.

 1992.16.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.16.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

1992.17.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

1992.17.1_d+®tail.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

 

***********

CHADOR BADONI

 

Puppet small wodden idol

 

Definition from 

A vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&a...

 

73924_171960832816631_100000081457478_594899_904374_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Khavadiya)

71761_171961089483272_100000081457478_594910_1082616_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

73844_171962069483174_100000081457478_594925_4013181_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171960996149948_100000081457478_594903_6726846_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

74267_171961002816614_100000081457478_594905_8328388_n[1].jpg

(Photo courtesy Sanatan Kavadiya)

 

puppets48.jpg

 

(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

*****************

JADUPATUA

jadu = magician ; patua –or chitrakar- = painter

Santal Parganas

State of Bihar, India

(Text and pictures courtesy of  Herve Perdiolle)

 

 

Patuas and Jadupatuas from Bihar

(Creation of the world 1980)

 

The Jadu Patuas are painters and story tellers and go from village to village carrying their painted scrolls made of paper sheets sewn together with a bamboo stick on each extremity.

Jadu means "Magician".

The themes they represent on the scrolls are  about a dozen . However, there is different interpretation for each theme. A Jadu Patua can, looking at one scroll, say different stories depending if his audience is Hindu, Muslim or Santal. This last ethnic group is the most important audience for the Jadu Patuas.

 

The Patuas live with the money that the villagers give them after listening to their stories. The fact that they are magicians give a special effect to their intervention because the villagers fear them.

 

One of the most revealing images of the Jadu Patuas' role (in the Santal community) is the

 

"Mritu pat"

 

or

 

"image of the deaths"

 

. When somebody dies in a village near the Jadu Patua's one, the "artist magician" visits the family of the dead with a small and simple image (about 3 x 2 inches) which is supposed to represent the dead in a simple way.

 

Only the late person's pupil is missing.

 

Showing this image to the family, the Jadu Patua tells the story evoking the suffering of the dead whose soul is still trapped in hell.

 

The family then gives an offering to the Jadu Patua in order for him to intervene. The ritual for the Magician painter consists then to paint the dead's pupil in order to free his soul.

 

The principles developed by the Jadu Patuas are :

 

the Baha's feast

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25x460 cm)

a strange mixture of Hindu and Santal myths showing a lot of festivities where tribal dances, sacrifices and drinking sessions scenes are mixed;

 

the creation of the world

(Anonyme, Création du monde, 1990, couleurs végétales sur papier, 20x420 cm)

where we can see the first human couple being born from the coupling of a goose and a gande;

 

the painting of Kali

lai scroll painting

(Anonyme, Kali pat, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 30x240 cm, collection privée.)

composed with 3 or 4 paper sheets only, showing Kali in her most terrifying aspects

 

and a lot of scrolls about

 

Yama

 

the god of hell (showing all the ill treatments, sometimes sexual, given by Yama and his servants to the dead who behaved badly during their lifetime).

 

It seems that the scarier the Jadu Patuas'style gets, the more highly he is regarded.

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

 

 

 

18/01/2011

HIMALAYAN TRIBAL ART ROBERT BRUNDAGE AN AMERICAN POINT OF VIEW

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 - 2016

********************************

HIMALAYAN TRIBAL ART

ROBERT BRUNDAGE

AN AMERICAN POINT OF VIEW

 http://artyeti.com/

untitled.jpg

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Photo courtesy of

Robert Brundage

08/03/2009

Himalayan Art Catalogue. Sculpteurs de bois au Népal : bouffons et protecteurs. Wood sculpture in Nepal. Jokers and talismans. Bernard Goy Max Itzikovitz.

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 - 2016

*********************

SAN FRANCISCO TRIBAL ART SHOW

Photo credit Sam Singer

2009.jpg

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"Sculptures de bois au Nepal: buffons et protecteurs",  a new important  book by Bernard Goy and Max Itzikovitz devoted to this unknown field of Himalayan art. For Collectors of Himalayan Tribal Art as well as for all the tribal art lovers a book  absolutely to buy.

9788874394951_1_v[1]

The words of the editor:
"Au début des années 1980 apparurent dans quelques galeries parisiennes spécialisées dans l’exotisme, d’énigmatiques masques de bois, proches de ceux que portent chamanes sibériens ou esquimaux. Seul le cachet de cire rouge réglementairement apposé sur ces objets par les douanes népalaises permettait d’en identifier la provenance. De nombreux amateurs des arts primitifs, séduits par l’archaïsme de leur expression et la densité de leur patine, gages traditionnels de grande ancienneté, adoptèrent instantanément ces masques et en devinrent d’inconditionnels zélateurs. Malgré leur origine et leur fonction incertaine, ces œuvres ont acquis récemment leurs lettres de noblesse en rejoignant les vitrines du Quai Branly.
Un survol de l’histoire du Népal explique pourquoi les connaissances sur la culture matérielle du pays, hors la vallée de Katmandou, ne bénéficient pas de ce même recul qui caractérise les autres civilisations non européennes. Le pays longtemps interdit aux occidentaux ne s’est ouvert que récemment et les archives dont on dispose datent des années 1960.
Les auteurs de cet ouvrage ont voulu rechercher dans le passé les traces de ces accessoires auxquels les ethnologues n’ont pas, à ce jour, apporté leur caution habituelle pour les avoir rarement croisées en 50 années de présence sur le terrain.
De superbes photographies d’Hughes Dubois complètent ce volume et présentent des masques et statuettes rassemblées pendant plus de 25 ans par Max Itzikovitz, l’un des auteurs."
 
About the Authors

Bertrand Goy, membre de la Société de Géographie et de la Société des Africanistes, il s‘est spécialisé dans l’histoire des arts primitifs et a écrit catalogues et monographies, dont Jaraï (2006, prix Auguste Pavie de l’Académie des Sciences d’Outremer).

Max Itzikovitz, célèbre collectionneur d’arts premiers.

Hughes Dubois est l'un des plus réputés photographes d'art aujourd'hui. Il a participé à de très nombreuses publications pour le musée Dapper, le Pavillon des Sessions au musée du Louvre et pour le Museum of Islamic Art à Doha.

Ont également contribué :

Gisèle Krausskopff, directeur de recherches CNRS, (LESC, Laboratoire d’Ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative, UMR 7535, CNRS-Université de ParisX) ;

Henri Bancaud, voyageur au Népal, éditeur.
 

An interesting group of 15 Western Nepal  primitive sculpture is edited by Ethnoflorence on: 

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6958870/15-weste...

 in the same page there are also some interesting photos of Giuseppe Tucci Expedition and for a comparation two rare photos of the Kalash primitive statuary of Kafiristan.

An interesting and rare group of 4 Tharu posts and 4 Western Nepal sculptures is edited by Ethnoflorence on  :

 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6166203/4-tharu-...  .

 The iconography of some Tharu primitive  panels is comparated with the Santal people one on:

 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6268451/28-santa... .

Another group of  primitive sculptures are edited by Ethnoflorence  on: http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6210825/western-...      and http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6305346/four-pri... .

29/08/2008

Ancient kali mask from Rajbansi or Dhimal people.

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

1930874_38794455947_4564_n.jpg

2008 - 2016

Photo Courtesy of Mr Sam Singer

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SAN FRANCISCO TRIBAL ART SHOW

2008

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1930874_38793565947_7433_n.jpg

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Ancient Kali mask from Terai. Iconographic comparation in possible with other Kali masks of Ethnoflorence Collection,  interesting and unique is the ancient black crying Kali mask on :
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/5844563/himalaya... , the patina of this mask is analogous to that of the Fang reliquary. 3 Kali masks are edit also on http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/5977909/differen... .

dyn009_original_300_400_pjpeg_2638188_2a705f65b0e8b3c148056ff330a11b90[1].jpg

 Frontal view.

dyn009_original_480_640_pjpeg_2638188_f02da15d127032cb0c7ec9779ec184c5[1].jpg

Frontal view detail.

Immagine 003

Forehead view.

Immagine 004

Forehead view detail.

Immagine 001

Frontal view detail.

 

Immagine 005

Eye and patina detail view.

Immagine 006

Eye and patina detail view.

Immagine 007

Side A view. From a plastic view point  this Kali  mask is connoted from a strong push towards the verticality.

Immagine 009

Side A detail view.

Immagine 008

Side A detail view.

Immagine 010

Side A detail view. The patina in crust of this old Kali Mask is extraordinary, and it would make happy also the most refined collectors of  African masks.

Immagine 011

Side A detail view.

Immagine 012

Side B view.

Immagine 013

Side B view detail.

Immagine 014

Side B view detail.

Immagine 015

Side B, another strong detail.

Immagine 016

Back side view.

Immagine 017

Back side view.

Immagine 018

Back side view.

Immagine 019

Base of the mask view.

Immagine 020

We  often speaks about  the verticality of the African  masks , ethnoflorence prefers to confront the plastic of this ancient Kali mask with that of an other himalayana mask, also this connoted from a strong vertical push (and a really hard wood).

Immagine 025

This  powerful mask does not come neither from Africa or from Oceania, but from the himalayana region.

Immagine 026

Detail.

 

Immagine 028

Another side view.

Immagine 029

Side view detail.

Immagine 031

Back side view.

Immagine 032

Back side view.