24/12/2011

NAGALAND NAGA ART : TRIBAL ARTS OF THE LHOTA NAGAS by JP MILLS 1922

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

*******************

THE LHOTA NAGAS

BY

J. P. MILLS, I.C.S.

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WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND SUPPLEMENTARY
NOTES BY
J. H. HUTTON, CIE
HON. DIRECTOR OF ETHNOGRAPHY, ASSAM

Published by direction of the Government of Assam

MACMILLAN AND CO. LIMITED
ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON

1922

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NAGALAND NAGA ART :THE TRIBAL ARTS OF THE ANGAMI NAGAS J H HUTTON 1921

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

****************************

THE ANGAMI NAGAS

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With Some Notes on Neighbouring Tribes

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BY

J.H HUTTON

C.I.E. M.A,
(Indian Civil Service)

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WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

Published by direction of the Assam Administration

MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED
ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON
1921

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19/12/2011

TRIBAL PEOPLE: SUNWAR OR SANWAR an HIMALAYAN TRIBE in THE PEOPLE OF INDIA RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDISTAN LONDON 1868

THE 

PEOPLE OF INDIA.

A SERIES OF

PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS.

WITH DESCRIPTIVE LETTERPRESS,

OF

THE RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDUSTAN,

 

ORIGINALLY PREPARED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF

THE GOVERNAMENT OF INDIA,

AND

REPRODUCED BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR

INDIA IN COUNCIL.

EDITED BY

J. FORBES WATSON AND JOHN WILLIAM KATE

 

VOLUME ONE

 

LONDON 

INDIA MUSEUM,

1868

 

THE HIMALAYAN TRIBES

 

 

SUNWAR OR SANWAR—NEPAL

 

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Sunwars is a tribe mostly found north of the Magars and Gorung, and

near and among the Cisnivean Bhotias. 

 

Hodgson  assigns them the Gandaceam basin, below the mountain peaks of Gosainthan, 

as their seat.

 

They are among the principal Alpine tribes of the sub-Himalayas between the Kali,

where the aboriginal tongues are merged into the Prakrit, and the Dhausri, where

they begin to pass into monosyllabic-tongued races of presumed Indo-Chinese

origin. 

 

"They inhabit the central and temperate parts of the mountains,

and may be said to occupy a very healthy climate ; but one," says Hodgson,

" of exact temperatures, as various as the several elevations (4,000 to 10,000 feet) of the

ever-varied surface, and which, though nowhere troubled with excessive heat, is so

by excessive moisture, and by the rank vegetation which moisture generates with

the aid of a deep fat soil."

 

 

TRIBAL PEOPLE: NEWAR an HIMALAYAN TRIBE in THE PEOPLE OF INDIA RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDISTAN LONDON 1868

THE 

PEOPLE OF INDIA.

A SERIES OF

PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS.

WITH DESCRIPTIVE LETTERPRESS,

OF

THE RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDUSTAN,

 

ORIGINALLY PREPARED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF

THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA,

AND

REPRODUCED BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR

INDIA IN COUNCIL.

EDITED BY

J. FORBES WATSON AND JOHN WILLIAM KATE

 

VOLUME ONE

 

LONDON 

INDIA MUSEUM,

1868

 

THE HIMALAYAN TRIBES

 

 

NEWARS

 

 

 

NEWAR is the name of the bulk of the inhabitants of Nipal, who were

the rulers of the valley before the Goorkha conquest, and are, indeed,

believed to have been its first inhabitants. 

 

Their original country has not been ascertained, though the Tartar cast of their 

physical form, and the monosyllabic structure of their language, point to Tibet ; 

their traditions, however, indicate India as their previous home. 

 

They now constitute the great mass of the agricultural and artisan population ; 

and the ruins of their well-built towns and temples attest the civilization to which 

they had attained before their conquest by the rude mountaineers,

who now consume in military idleness, the fruits of their fields. 

 

About two-thirds of the Newars are Buddhists, the remainder Brahminical Hindoos.

 

They are a cheerful and industrious race, possessing a skill in agriculture far 

exceeding that which exists in Hindostan, and presenting a marked contrast to the 

sour looks and arrogant demeanour of the Goorkha on the one hand, and to the melancholy

and apathetic countenance of the inhabitant of Hindostan on the other.

 

 

TRIBAL PEOPLE: MAGAR an HIMALAYAN TRIBE in THE PEOPLE OF INDIA RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDISTAN LONDON 1868

THE 

PEOPLE OF INDIA.

A SERIES OF

PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS.

WITH DESCRIPTIVE LETTERPRESS,

OF

THE RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDUSTAN,

 

ORIGINALLY PREPARED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF

THE GOVERNAMENT OF INDIA,

AND

REPRODUCED BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR

INDIA IN COUNCIL.

EDITED BY

J. FORBES WATSON AND JOHN WILLIAM KATE

 

VOLUME ONE

 

LONDON 

INDIA MUSEUM,

1868

 

THE HIMALAYAN TRIBES

 

MAGARS

 

 

 

 

The Magars are a tribe of not very great magnitude, resident in Nepal. 

 

They are "unquestionably a people of this (the southern) side of the snows

( Himalayas), and their original country is Sikkim, from which they were first driven

west by the Lepchas across the Meehi and Konki rivers, and thence further west by

the Limboos beyond the Arun and Doodkooshi.

 

While in Sikkim they were not Hindoos ; they ate fowls, pigs, and everything except the cow, from which I believe

they abstained. 

 

They had no priests, or 'puja,' of any kind. 

 

Now, however, they have the Brahmins, and are, I believe, reckoned very good Hindoos in Nipal."

 

(Han Sing, Dewan of Sikkim, in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal., v. xi., p. o.)

 

They are largely enlisted into the Nipalese army, and are excellent soldiers, having

formed a considerable portion of the Goorkha regiment enlisted by Sir C. Napier

in 1850. 

 

Their attachment to the house of Goorkha is but recent, and of not

extraordinary or intimate nature. 

 

"They have acquired the Khas language, though not to the oblivion of their own ; and the Khas habits and sentiments,

but with sundry reservations in favour of pristine liberty."

 

They are divided into fifty-three different septs, or families.

 

 

TRIBAL PEOPLE: LIMBOOS OR LIMBO an HIMALAYAN TRIBE in THE PEOPLE OF INDIA RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDISTAN LONDON 1868

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 - 2016

*************************************

THE 

PEOPLE OF INDIA.

A SERIES OF

PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS.

WITH DESCRIPTIVE LETTERPRESS,

OF

THE RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDUSTAN,

 

ORIGINALLY PREPARED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF

THE GOVERNAMENT OF INDIA,

AND

REPRODUCED BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR

INDIA IN COUNCIL.

EDITED BY

J. FORBES WATSON AND JOHN WILLIAM KATE

 

VOLUME ONE

 

LONDON 

INDIA MUSEUM,

1868

 

THE HIMALAYAN TRIBES

 

LIMBOOS.

 

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The term LIMBOO is a corruption of Ekthoomba, and is generally used to

designate the whole population of the mountainous country lying between

the Dood-Koosi and the Kanki rivers, in Nepal. 

 

Their original country is Chung, in Tibet. 

 

The Limboos are found in smaller numbers eastwards to the Mechi

river, which forms the boundary of Nepal and Sikhim. 

 

In still fewer numbers they exist within the Sikhim territory, as far east as the Teesta river, beyond

which they very rarely settle. 

 

In Bhootan they are unknown, except as strangers.

 

They doubtless belong to the great Mongolian family of the human race. 

 

This is clearly evidenced in their form of features, absence of beard, and yellow colour of

the skin; but to which of the numerous divisions of this family, to be found

between the Himalaya mountains and the Yellow Sea, they especially belong,

or of which they are an offshoot, remains to be decided by further comparison of

their language and their religion, with those of other Mongols. Their language

has no written character, nor does it impress the hearer as having any resemblance

to the Lepcha or Mech dialects. 

 

There is, however, reason to suppose that it once

had a written character peculiar to itself (Journal As. Soc. Bengal., ii., 4.)

 

Although they have been long in close contact with the Hindoos, there is not

any perceptible mixture of the blood to be observed, whether in more regular

features, or in the absence of the small low nose of the Mongolian races, and

presence of the beard. 

 

In religion they are neither Hindoos nor Buddhists ;

though they outwardly conform, as their locality requires, to the practices of either

creed. 

 

They believe in one great god, called SHAM-MUNG, and worship many

minor deities. 

 

Their marriage ceremonies are simple, involving little but a sacrifice

and a feast. 

 

Their funeral proceedings are thus described:—Just as the vital

spark has taken its leave of the mortal tenement, it is usual among the Limboos,

for one who can procure a little powder, to fire a gun.

 

The report is supposed to give intimation of the event to the gods, and to speed the 

soul of the deceased  to their keeping. 

 

They burn the dead, selecting the summits of mountains for

the purpose, and afterwards collect and bury the ashes, over which they raise a

square tomb of stone, about four feet high, placing upon it an upright stone.

 

On this is engraved a record of the quantity of largess distributed at the funeral of the

deceased. 

 

This inscription is either in the Dev-Nagri or Lepcha character,

according to the comparative facility of procuring an engraver in either. 

 

It is an act of virtue in the relatives to give largess, but it does not appear to be considered

of any efficacy to the soul of the departed. 

 

The Limboos do not make offerings, or sacrifices for the dead, nor have they any belief in the transmigration of souls.

 

They mourn the dead by weeping and lamentations at the time, and by avoiding

merry-makings, and adorning the hair with flowers for a month or two. 

 

They are a warlike race, and occasionally enlist in the British native army.

 

TRIBAL PEOPLE: KHAS or KHUS an HIMALAYAN TRIBE in THE PEOPLE OF INDIA RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDISTAN LONDON 1868

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 - 2016

************************

KHAS or KHUS

an Himalayan Tribe

  in

THE PEOPLE OF INDIA RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDISTAN LONDON 1868 

 

THE 

PEOPLE OF INDIA.

A SERIES OF

PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS.

WITH DESCRIPTIVE LETTERPRESS,

OF

THE RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDUSTAN,

 

ORIGINALLY PREPARED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF

THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA,

AND

REPRODUCED BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR

INDIA IN COUNCIL.

EDITED BY

J. FORBES WATSON AND JOHN WILLIAM KATE

 

VOLUME ONE

 

LONDON 

INDIA MUSEUM,

1868

 

THE HIMALAYAN TRIBES

 

KHAS OR KHUS

 

 

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"THE Kas, or Khus, now the dominant population of Nepal, were, until 1816, the

ruling tribe of the entire tract from the Sutlej to the Teesta.

 

They are called Purbuttiah, or Highlander, from their residence in the Hills ; 

the term being chiefly confined to them, though equally applicable to other 

tribes similarly located.

 

Their aboriginal stock is Turaniam ; a fact, says Hodgson,

" inscribed in characters so plain upon their faces, forms, and languages, that 

we may well dispense with the vain attempt to trace it historically in the meagre 

chronicles of barbarism."

 

When the tide of Musulman conquest and bigotriy, from the twelfth century downwards, 

swept multitudes of the Brahmins from the plains into these hills, they endeavoured to

make the natives converts to Hinduism, and thus to confirm the fleeting influence

which their learning and refinement gave them over an illiterate and barbarous

population.

 

In order to secure their end, they granted to their earliest distinguished

converts, in defiance of the creed they taught, the lofty rank and honours of the

Khastriya order, which they also communicated to their progeny by the Hill-women.

 

Thus originated the now numerous, predominant, and extensively ramified tribe of

the Khas, which, favoured by the Brahminical system, became entirely devoted to

it.

 

Subduing the neighbouring tribes, they "gradually merged the greater part of

their own habits, ideas, and language, but not physiognomy, in those of the

Hindoos, and the Khas language became a corrupt dialect of Hindi," concealing

froom all but curious eyes its barbaric origin.

 

They are excellent soldiers, and form a considerable proportion of the Nipalese

(Goorkha) army.

 

Though more liable to Brahminical prejudices than other military

tribes of the country, they have no religious feelings which prevent them from

becoming excellent servants in arms, and they possess pre-eminently that masculine

energy of character and that love of enteiprise which distinguish so advantageously

the Nipal soldiery.

 

Despatching their meals in half-an-hour, and "satisfying the

ceremonial law by merely washing their hands and face, and taking off their turbans

before cooking, they laugh at the pharisaical rigour of our (Bengal) Sepoys, who

must bathe from head to foot and make puja ere they begin to dress their dinner,

must eat nearly naked in the coldest weather, and cannot be in marching trim

again in less than three hours. 

 

The former will carry several days' provisions on

their backs, the latter would deem such an act intolerably degrading."

 

The present royal family of Nipal belong to the Sahi, or Sah, branch of the

Khas."  

 

 

TRIBAL PEOPLE: GURUNG an HIMALAYAN TRIBE in THE PEOPLE OF INDIA RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDISTAN LONDON 1868

THE 

PEOPLE OF INDIA.

A SERIES OF

PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS.

WITH DESCRIPTIVE LETTERPRESS,

OF

THE RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDUSTAN,

 

ORIGINALLY PREPARED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF

THE GOVERNAMENT OF INDIA,

AND

REPRODUCED BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR

INDIA IN COUNCIL.

EDITED BY

J. FORBES WATSON AND JOHN WILLIAM KATE

 

VOLUME ONE

 

LONDON 

INDIA MUSEUM,

1868

 

THE HIMALAYAN TRIBES

 

GURUNG

 

 

"The Goorungs of Nipal are a division of the "Purbuttiahs," and therefore

nominally Hindoos. 

 

They live on the hills, uniformly selecting an altitude of

5000 or 0000 feet, especially between Jumla and Kirant, where they rear immense

flocks of the Barwal goat. 

 

They exhibit, in common with most of the aboriginal

tribes of Nipal, a modified form of the Mongolian type, retaining, like the Magars,

their own vernacular tongue, though, from long intermixture with the Khas, they

have also acquired the language of the latter. 

 

Their original seat is supposed to be in the valleys around the peak of Gosainthan ; 

and they retain to a certain extent the the manners and religion of their ancestors, 

though the latter has in some degree

been mixed with Hinduism ; mainly, it would seem, because this is the religion

of the reigning family, whom they serve largely in the capacity of soldiers.

 

From their "energy of character, love of enterprise, freedom from the shackles of

caste, unadulterated military habits, and perfect subjectibility to discipline,"

they are eminently fitted for a military life. 

The Goorungs are subdivided into no less than forty-two banches."

 

 

INDIA RELIGION SYMBOLS ICONOGRAPHY: ELEMENTS OF HINDU ICONOGRAPHY BY T. A. GOPINATHA RAO, M.A. MADRAS 1914

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

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ELEMENTS OF HINDU ICONOGRAPHY

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BY

T. A. GOPINATHA RAO, M.A.

Published under the patronage of the Government of His Highness

the Maharaja of Travancore.

MADRAS

1914

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 A SHORT RESUME OF THE CONTENTS

 

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 Ganapati, Vishnu, Dhruva-beras  

Dasavataras or the Ten Incarnations of Vishnu

Chaturvimsati-miirtayah,  Minor Forms of Vishnu

Purusha, Kapila, Yajnamurti, Vyasa,

Dhanvantarin, Dattatreya, Hari-barapitamaha,

Vaikuntha Trailokya-mohana

Ananta, Visvarupa, Lakshmi-Narayana,

Hayagriva, Adimurti, Jalasayin, Dharma,

Varadaraja, Ranganatha, Venkatesa,

Vithoba, Jagannatha, Nara-Narayana and Manmatha

Garuda and Ayudha-purushas 

Adityas, the Nava-grahas Devi, Srichakra, Devi, Durga 

Nilakanthi, Kshemankari, Harasiddhi, 

Vana-Darga, Agni-Durga, Jaya-Durga, Vindhyavasi

Durga, Ripumari-Durga, Mahishasuramarddani

or Katyayani, Chandika, Nanda,

Nava-Durgas, Bhadrakali, Mahakali

Amba, Ambika, Mangala, Sarvamangala

Kalaratri, Lalita, Gauri, Uma, Parvati

Rambha, Totala, Tripura, the eight Dvarapalakas

of the Gauri temple, Bhutamata,

Yoganidra, Vama, Jyeshtha, Raudri, Kali,

Kalavikarnika, Balavikarnika, Balapramathani

Sarvabhutadamani, Manonmani,

Varuril-Chamarida, Eakta-Chamunda,

Sivaduti, Yogesvari, Bhairavi, Tripura

Bhairavi, Siva, Kirti, Siddhi, Riddhi,

Kshama, Dipti, Rati, Sveta, Bhadra, Jaya,

Vijaya, Kali, Ghantakarni, Jayanti, Diti,

Arundhati, Aparajita, Surabhi, Krishna,

Indrakshi, Annapurna, Tulasidevi, Asvarudhadevi

Bhuvanesvari, Bala, Rajamatangi,

Lakshmi, Sri, Mahalakshmi, Bhumidevi,

Saraswati, Sapta-matrikas and Jyeshthadevi

 

A SHORT RESUME OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS

 

Yantras : A group of Salagramas and an

image of Eama made of a piece of salagrama

 

Saradadevi and Sankaracharya, Kaladi 

 

Bust of Chennakesava, Belur

 

Vishnu bathing Kachohhapesvara, Conjeevaram

 

Sarabhamurti, Tribhuvanam 

 

Trimurti with Siva as the central figure

 

Tiruvottiyur

 

Trimurti with Vishnu as the central figure, Nagalapuram 

 

Weapons held by images

 

Other objects held by images

 

Headgears and ornaments of images 

 

Hand-poses of images 

 

Seats of images 

 

Head-gears and hair knots of images

 

Unmatta-uchchhishta-Ganapati, Kaladi

 

Kevala-Ganapati, Trivandram

 

Lakshmi-Ganapati, Tenkasi

 

Uchchhisbta-Ganapati, Kumbhakonam 

 

Nanjangodu

 

Heramba-Ganapati, front view, Negapatam

 

Prasanna-Ganapati, Pattisvaram

 

Trivandram

 

Nritta-Ganapati, Halebidu

 

MadhyamaYogasthanakamurti, Mahabalipuram 

 

Bhogasthanakamurti, Madras Museum 

 

Adhama Bhogastankamurti, Tiruvottiyur

 

Bhogasthanakamurti, Madras Museum 

 

MadhyamaBhogasthanakamurti, Madras Museum

 

Yogasanamurti, Bagali

 

Bhogasanamurti, Badami

 

Bhogasanamurti, Dadikkombu 

 

Trivandram 

 

Yogasayanamurti, Trivandram 

 

Adbama Virasanamurti; Aihole 

 

Madhyama Yogasayanamurti, 

 

Uttama Bhogasayanamurti Rajaputana

 

The ten Avataras of Vishnu 

 

Varaha panel, Mahabalipuram 

 

Bhuvarahamurthi, Badami 

 

Varaha, Rajim, Raipur district

 

Varaha, Nagalapuram 

 

Phalodi, Jodhpur district,Marwar 

 

Lakshmi-Narasimha, Madras Museum 

 

Varaha, Belur 

 

Lakshmi-Narasimha Madras Mesum

 

Kevala-Narasimha, Halebidu 

 

Standing figure of Kevala-Narasimha, Badami 

 

Raghu-Rama, Shermadevi

 

Ramesvaram

 

Mahabalipuram 

 

Navanita-nrittamurti, Madras Museum 

 

Gana-Gopala, Halebidu 

 

Gana-Gopala

 

Madana-Gopala, Tenkasi 

 

Kaliyahimardaka Krishna, Madras Museum

 

Govarddhana-dhara Krishna, Nuggehalli

 

Balakrishna 

 

Vatapatrasayin 

 

Buddha, Borobudor

 

Chennakesavasvamin, Belur 

 

Madhava, Belur 

 

Govinda, Belur 

 

Madhusiudana, Belur 

 

Hari, Belur 

 

Sri Krishna, Belur

 

Hari-hara-pitamaha, Halebidu 

 

Dattatreya

 

Dattatreya, Badami 

 

Hari-hara-pitamaha, Ajmere, Rajaputana Museum 

 

Vaikunthanatha, Badami 

 

Hayagriva, Nuggehalli

 

Adimurti, Nuggehalli

 

Jalasayin, Halebidu

 

Varadaraja

 

Manmatha and Rati, Halebidu

 

Manmatha, Tenkasi 

 

Garuda , Badami 

 

Garuda, Palur 

 

Sudarsana-Chakra

 

Surya, Gudimallam 

 

Meicheri 

 

Madras Museum 

 

Surya, Rupnagar

 

Surya, Chitorgarh

 

Suryanarayana, Belur 

 

Surya, Madras Museum 

 

Torana of a Surya temple, .Junagarh Museum

 

The Nava-Grahas, Suryanarkoyil

 

Sricbakra 

 

Sringeri Matha 

 

Durga, Onakkur 

 

Mahabalipuram 

 

Durga, Mahabalipuram 

 

Durga panel, Mahabalipuram 

 

Katyayani or Mahisbasura-marddani,Madras Museum 

 

Durga, Conjeevaram 

 

Katyayani or Mahisbasura-marddani, Gaikondasolapuram,

 

Mahabalipuram 

 

Standing figure of Bhadrakali, Tiruppalatturai,

 

Mahakali, Madeyur 

 

Madras Museum 

 

AnnapiJrna, Trivandram

 

Sridevi, Mahabalipuram 

 

Lakshmi, Madeyur 

 

Sridevi, Trivandram

 

Sarasvati, Gadag

 

Sarasvati, Gaigaikondasolapuram 

 

Sarasvati, Bagali 

 

Sarasvati with a Vina, Halebidu 

 

Sarasvati dancing, Halebidu 

 

The Saptamatrika Group, Ellora

 

The Saptamatri Group, Belur 

 

Jyeshthadevi, Mylapore, Madras 

 

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18/12/2011

HIMALAYAN TRIBAL ART: THE LUTE OF THE HIMALAYAS AN HIDDEN HERITAGE

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

******************

THE LUTE OF THE HIMALAYAS

AN HIDDEN HERITAGE

PHOTO EDITED ON 'AMONG THE HIMALAYAS'

 By Major L. A. WADDELL

 

 WESTMINSTER ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & C o.

 

2 Whitehall Gardens 1899

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