26/12/2011

TATTOO TRIBAL TODA INDIA NILGIRI HILLS TATTOO MARKS in ANTHROPOLOGY TODAS AND KOTAS MADRAS 1896

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 - 2016

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MADRAS GOVERNMENT MUSEUM

 

BULLETIN N 4

 

ANTHROPOLOGY

 

of the

 

TODAS and KOTAS OF THE NILGIRI HILLS

 

and of the

 

BRAHMANS, KAMMALANS, PALLIS, AND PARIAHS

OF MADRAS CITY.

 

by

 

EDGAR THURSTON

 

MADRAS

 

1896

 

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TODA

TATTOO MARKS

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TRAVELS AMONGST THE TODAS or THE STUDY OF A PRIMITIVE TRIBE IN SOUTH INDIA

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

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TRAVELS AMONGST THE TODAS

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or

THE STUDY OF A PRIMITIVE TRIBE IN

SOUTH INDIA

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THEIR HISTORY  CHARACTER, CCSTOMS, RELIGION

INFANTICIDE, POLYANDRY, LANGUAGE :

WITH OUTLINES OF THE TUDA GRAMMAR

 

by

  

WILLIAM E. MARSHALL

 LODON

 LONGMANS GREEN AND CO.

1873

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THE TODA MAND

 

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THE CONICAL TEMPLE BOATH

 

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THE TUDE or SACRED BUSH

 

WEAPON, BOW ARROW, USED AT WEDDING AND FUNERALS

 

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THE TIRIERI 

 

TODA HOLY PLACE

 

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INDIA FOLK CULTURE:DAIRY and BUTTER CHURNING PROCEDIMENT AMONG THE TODA PEOPLE in THE TODAS by WHR RIVERS, LONDON NEW YORK 1906

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN 

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

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THE TODAS

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BY

W. H. R. RIVERS

FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON

MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited

NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

1906

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The upright staff is called PALMAN , or ' milk-tree '; the two rings by means of which the

churning-stick is fastened to the palman are called palkati, or ' milk-ties.' 

The cord by which the churning-stick, or madth is revolved is called kudinan or palv.

 

FIG. l8.

 

—LIST OF THE CHIEF DAIRY VESSELS.

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 A. The PALMAN B. The PALKATI C. The MADTH D. A TEDSHK E. The ERTATPUN

F. The PATAT G. The POLMACHOK H. The PARSKADRVENMU I. The IRKARTPUN

K. The ADIMU

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NAGA SERPENT WORSHIP: SNAKE SYMBOL IN INDIA IN CONNECTION WITH THE WORSHIP OF SIVA CALCUTTA 1879

ROUGH NOTES

 

SNAKE SYMBOL IN INDIA

IN CONNECTION WITH THE

WORSHIP OF SIVA

 

by

 

J. H. RIVETT-CARNAC, ESQ.

 

CALCUTTA

 

1879

 

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INDIA RELIGION FOLKLORE ART: THE POPULAR RELIGION AND FOLK-LORE OF NORTHERN INDIA BY W. CROOKE, B.A. 1896

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN 

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

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THE

POPULAR RELIGION

AND FLOK-LORE

OF

NORTHERN INDIA

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BY

W. CROOKE, B.A.

 

BENGAL CIVIL SERVICE

IN TWO VOLUMES

 VOL. II

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 VOL. I  

SEE MORE ON

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2011/12/25/in...

A NEW EDITION, REVISED AND ILLUSTRATED

 WESTMINSTER

ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & CO.

2, Whitehall Gardems, S.W.

1896

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CONTENTS

A RESUME

 

CHAPTER I.

THE EVIL EYE AND THE SCARING OF GHOSTS

 

Gold and Silver Protectives;Copper and Brass Protectives;Coral and Marine Products Protectives

Precious Stones Protectives; Beads Protectives; Blood a Protective; Incense; Salt; Salutation

Blacksmith, Respect for; water; Grain; Urad; Barley; Sesamum; Sheaves; Milk; Colours; Grasses

Tattooing; Garlic; Glass; GoNDS : Procedure in Cases of Fascination; amulets, The Ring, Bracelet, and Knotted Cord

Numbers; Lucky and Unlucky Days; The Funeral Feast; Mutilation a Sign of Mourning; Respect Paid to Hair

Food for the Dead; Articles left with the Corpse; The Fly as a Life Index; Recalling the Ghost;Ashes.

Replacing Household Vessels; Funeral Rites in Effigy; Ghosts Lengthening Themselves;Tree Ghosts

Ghosts which Protect Cattle

 

CHAPTER II.

TREE AND SERPENT WORSHIP

 

The Karam Tree; The Fig Tree; Tree Marriages; Tree and Serpent Worship; Snake Shrines; The Snake Gods

The Sinhas; Deified Snake Heroes; Snake Treasure Guardians; Powers of Snakes in Folk-lore; Modern Snake-worship.

Cure of Snake-bite; The Snake in Folk-lore; Snakes and Euphemism; The Snake Jewel; The Household Snake

 

CHAPTER III.

TOTEMISM AND FETISHISM.

 

Origin of totemism;Stoks named from animalas, plants etc;Totem Names among the Dravidians;The Panjab Snake Tribe

Special Respect Paid to the Totem; The Boar as a Totem; Fetishism Defined; Fetishism Illustrated in Afghanistan

The Lorik Legend;Village Fetish Stones; Human Sacrifice among the Indo-Aryans; Human Sacrifice in the Folk-tales

Human Sacrifice in Modern Times;Survivals of Human Sacrifice;Human Sacrifice and Buildings;Modifications of Human Sacrifice

Fetish Stones;Fetishes among the Santals; Fetish Stones which Cure Disease; Fetish Stones the Abode of Spirits;

Tool Fetishes; Weapons and Implement Fetishes; The Corn-sieve;The Broom; The Rice-pounder; Origin of Fire-worship

The Sacred Fire; The Fire-drill; The Tomb Fetish; Miscellaneous Fetishes

 

CHAPTER IV.

ANIMAL-WORSHIP

 

Origin of Animal-worship; Horse-worship; The Lion; The Tiger; Bagh Deo, the Tiger Codling; Magical Powers of Dead Tigers

Tigers, Propitiation of;Tiger-worship among the Gonds;Men Metamorphosed into Tigers;Dog-worship;Dog-worship: Bhairon

Dogs in Folk-lore : The Bethgelert Legend; The Goat; Goat and Totemism; Cow AND Bull Worship; Respect for the Cow Modern

Origin of Cow-worship; Cow-worship : Its Later Development; Re-birth through the Cow; Respect Paid to the Cow

Modern Cow-worship; Superstitions about Cattle; The Buffalo; The Elephant; The Cat; The Rat and Mouse

The Bear; The Jackal; Birds : The Crow; The Hand of Glory; The Fowl; The Dove and Pigeon;The Goose or Swan

Sundry Sacred Birds; The Alligator; Fish; The Fish in Folk-lore; The Tortoise; The Frog;Insects

 

CHAPTER V.

THE BLACK ART

 

The Witch; Witchcraft : How Developed; The Witch in Folk-lore; Instruction in Witchcraft; Witch Seasons

Witches Taking the Form of Tigers;Witches Extracting Substances from their Victims;Witches and Cats

Witch Ordeals; Santal Witch Ordeals; Witch Tests, Bilaspur; Witch Tests, Bastar;Miscellaneous Tests : Eggs

The Rowan Tree; Witch-finding among Kols; Marks of Witches; Witchcraft by Means of Images

Punishment of Witches; Witchcraft Punishments among the Dravidians; Other Witchcraft Punishments

Drawing Blood from a Witch; Witch Haunts; PCttana, the Witch Fiend; PCttana, the Witch Fiend

The Witch of the Palwars

 

CHAPTER VI.

SOME RURAL FESTIVALS AND CEREMONIES

 

The Govardham; Cattle Festivals;The Sleep of Vishnu;Scaring of Locusts;Betel Planting;Cotton Planting

The Last Sheaf; First-fruits; Ceremonies at Winnowing;The Holi: it's origine;Propitiation of Sunshine

The Holi observances;The Lighting of the Holi fire;The Throwing of the Powder;The Basis of the Holi Rite

Marriage of the Powers of Vegetation; The Dravidian Saturnalia;The Desauli of the Hos

 

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Photo

www archive org

25/12/2011

INDIA FOLK ART AND CULTURE: Worship of Bhumiya in THE POPULAR RELIGION AND FOLK-LORE OF NORTHERN INDIA W. CROOKE, B.A 1896

INDIA FOLK ART AND CULTURE:

Worship of Bhumiya

 in

THE POPULAR RELIGION  AND FOLK-LORE OF NORTHERN

INDIA W. CROOKE, B.A 1896

***

 

THE POPULAR RELIGION  AND FOLK-LORE OF NORTHERN INDIA
BY
W. CROOKE, B.A.
VOL. I.
A NEW EDITION, REVISED AND ILLUSTRATED
WESTMINSTER
ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & CO.
2, Whitehall Gardens, S.W.
1896

 

MORE ON

 

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2011/12/25/in...

 

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Worship of Bhumiya
One of the most characteristic of the benevolent village
godlings is Bhumiya " the godling of the land or soil
(bhumi).


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INDIA FOLK ART AND CULTURE: GANGA MAI MOTHER GANGES RIVER WORSHIP in THE POPULAR RELIGION AND FOLK-LORE OF NORTHERN INDIA W. CROOKE, B.A 1896

GANGA MAI MOTHER GANGES RIVER WORSHIP

 in

THE POPULAR RELIGION  AND FOLK-LORE OF NORTHERN INDIA W. CROOKE, B.A 1896

§§§

THE POPULAR RELIGION  AND FOLK-LORE OF NORTHERN INDIA
BY
W. CROOKE, B.A.
VOL. I.
A NEW EDITION, REVISED AND ILLUSTRATED
WESTMINSTER
ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & CO.
2, Whitehall Gardens, S.W.
1896

MORE ON

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2011/12/25/in...

§§§

 

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River-worship.

High on the lit  of benevolent deities of Northern India
are the great rivers, especially the Canges and the Jumna,
which are known respectively as Ganga Mai or " Mother
Canges " and Jumna ji or " Lady Jumna."

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INDIA FOLK ART AND CULTURE: THE POPULAR RELIGION AND FOLK-LORE OF NORTHERN INDIA W. CROOKE 1896

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

popularreligionf01croo_0052 - Copy.jpg

2008 - 2016

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THE POPULAR RELIGION  AND
FOLK-LORE
OF
NORTHERN INDIA
BY
W. CROOKE, B.A.
VOL. I.
A NEW EDITION, REVISED AND ILLUSTRATED
WESTMINSTER
ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & CO.
2, Whitehall Gardens, S.W.
1896

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SHORT RESUME OF THE CHAPTERS

CHAPTER I

THE CODLINGS OF NATURE

The Deva; The Deota; Codlings Pure and Impure
Suraj Narayan, the Sun Codling; Village Worship of Suraj Narayan
Sun-worship among the non-Aryan Races; Sun Worhip in the domestic ritual
Moon-worship; Eclipses and the Fire Sacrifice; Eclipse Observances
Star-worship; The Rainbow; The Milky Way; Earth-worship; Worship of Mother Earth
Earth-worship among the Dravidians; Secrecy in Worship of Mother Earth; Thunder and Lightning
Earthquakes;Springs Connected with the Ganges;Sacred River Junctions;Ill-omened Streams
Origin of River-worship;Khwaja Khizr, the God of Water;The Folk-lore of Wells
Sacred Wells;Hot Springs;Waterfalls;Sacred Lakes; The Lake of the Fairy Gifts;The Shahgarh Lake
Other Sacred Tanks;Mountain-worship : the Himalaya; Mountain-worship among the Dravidians
Respect Paid to the Vindhya and Kaimur Ranges; Other Famous Hills; The Spirits of the Air
Rain-making and Nudity; Rites Special to Women

CHAPTER II.
THE HEROIC AND VILLAGE CODLINGS

The Heroic Codlings; Hanuman; Hanuman as a Village Godling; Worship of Bhimsen
Worship of BhIshma; Worship of the Local Codlings; Village Shrines; Identification of the Local Godling
Worship of Dwara Gusan; Worship of Bhumiya;Worship of Bhairon; Worship of Ganesa; The Worship of the Great Mothers
Mother-worship in Gujarat;Mother-worship in Upper India; The Jungle Mothers; Other Mother Goddesses
Worship of Gansam Deo; Worship of Dantan Deo and Lalita; Worship of Dulha Deo, the Bridegroom Codling

CHAPTER III.
THE CODLINGS OF DISEASE

The Demoniacal Theory of Disease; Sitala, The Goddess of small pox; Connection of Sitala with Human Sacrifice
Small-pox Worship in Bengal; Observances during Small-pox Epidemics; Hardaul Lala, the Cholera Godling
Exorcism of the Cholera Demon; Cholera caused by Witchcraft; Exorcism of Disease; Methods of Rural Exorcism
Exorcism by dancing, Flagellation; Treatment of Sorcerers; Fraud in Exorcism; Disease Charms; Rag Offerings
Disease Transference;Demons Scared by Noise

CHAPTER IV.
THE WORSHIP OF THE SAINTED DEAD

Ancestor-worship : its Origin; Among the Aryans and Dravidians; Spirits Mortal; Ancestors Re-born in Children;
The Sraddha; Degradation of Ancestor-worship; Worship of Worthies; The Sadhu; Miracle-working Tombs
The Sati; The Sati and the Pitri;Shaikh Burhan;Deification of noted persons; Harshu Panre;Domestic Worship of the Pir

CHAPTER V.
WORSHIP OF THE MALEVOLENT DEAD

Spirits of the Dead Hostile;Savage Theory of Dreams; The Separable Soul; The Bhut;Shrines to Persons Accidentally Killed
Second Marriage and Bhuts; Food of Bhuts; Posture of Bhuts; Tests of Bhuts; Spirit Entries : The Head
The Mouth; Yawning; Sneezing; The Hands and Feet; The Ears; Varieties of Bhuts; The Pret; The Pisacha; The Rakshasa
Night Spirits; Rakshasas as Builders;Modern Rakshasas;Brahman Ghosts; The Deo; The Bir; The Dano; The Headless Horseman
The Ghostly Army;Hill Demons; The Ghoul;The Baghaut; Eating Food in Spirit Land; Places Infested by Bhuts : Burial Places
Deserts; Owls and Bats; Ghosts and Burial Grounds; Mutilation;Ghosts of Old Ruins; Mine and Cave Spirits
Cave Deities; Bhuts Treasure Guardians;Underground Treasure; Ghosts of Roads; Ghosts of Empty Houses
Ghosts of Flowers; The Hearth; Ghosts of Filthy Places; The House Roof.
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24/12/2011

NAGALAND NAGA ART: THE TRIBAL ARTS OF THE SEMA NAGAS JH HUTTON INDIAN CIVIL AERVICE

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

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THE

SEMA NAGAS

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BY

J H. HUTTON,
CIE., M.A.
Indian Civil Service

WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

AND A

FOREWORD

BY

HENRY BALFOUR
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Published by direction of the Assam Government

MACMILLAN AND CO. LIMITED
ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON
1921

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Photo www archive org

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NAGALAND NAGA ART: TRIBAL ARTS OF THE NAGA TRIBES OF MANIPUR by T. C. HODSON 1911

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

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THE NAGA TRIBES
OF MANIPUR
by
T. C. HODSON

Late Assistant Political Agent in Manipur and Superintendent of the
State. Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute
and Member of the Folklore Society

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PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE GOVERNMENT OP
EASTERN BENGAL AND ASSAM

BY

MACMILLAN AND CO.LIMITED
ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON
1911

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