18/12/2011

HINDU DEITIES IN SOUTHERN INDIA:Dravidian gods in modern Hinduism : a study of the local and village deities of southern India 1915

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008 - 2016

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DRAVIDIAN GODS IN MODERN HINDUISM

 a study of the local and village deities of southern India 1915

by

Elmore Wilber Theodore

 Hamilton, N.Y.

1915

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 INDEX OF THE CHAPTERS

 CHAPTER I

The Conquest of the Dravidians 

Origin of the Dravidians. The present Dravidians in South

India. Dravidians in the Rigveda. Political conquest of the

Dravidians. Absorption of the Dravidian religion by Hinduism.

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CHAPTER II 

General Features of Dravidian Worship 

Worship of Hindu gods. Dravidian temples and idols. Characteristics

of Dravidian gods. Their local origin. Bloody offerings to

them. Female deities.

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 CHAPTER III

 The Seven Sisters 

Who are the Seven Sisters? Poleramma ; her temple; ceremonies

in case of smallpox. General worship of Poleramma. Her connection

with Potu Razu. Ankamma; cruel features in her worship.

Muthyalamma. Her worship as a village deity. Dilli Polasi.

Her worship as a household goddess. Her public worship. Bangaramma;

variations in her worship. Mathamma and Matangi.

Mathamma as a Madiga deity. Choosing a Matangi. Ceremonies

of initiation. Duties of a Matangi. Renuka.

 

CHAPTER IV

 

Perantalu Worship 

Meaning of Perantalu. Perantalus in Matsavaram. Buchamma.

Lingamma. Usuramma. The worship of Usuramma.

 

CHAPTER V

 

The Saktis 

Meaning of sakfi. Sakti worship in the Tantras. Dravidian

Saktis. Worship of Saktis in connection with the village goddess.

Various Saktis. Kati Ankamma. Donga Sakti. Nadividhi

Sakti. Lambadi Sakti. Malayala Sakti and human sacrifice.

Kateri Sakti.

CHAPTER VI

Demon Possession 

Ceremonies for exorcising demons which cause sickness. Another

method of exorcism. Exorcism at Nattaryan Kovil temple.

 

CHAPTER VII

 

Kanaka Durgamma and Poshamma 

Reasons for worshiping Kanaka Durgamma. Ceremonies in the

village. In the grove. Family worship of Poshamma.

 

CHAPTER VIII

 

Local Origins of Dravidian Deities 

Importance of local legends. Origins of various deities. Buchamma.

Lingamma. Usuramma. Tota Kuramma. Demons at

Nattaryan temple. Kanaka Durgamma. Legend of a golden

horn. Gonti. Podilamma. Mundla Mudamma. Ladothamma.

Nagamma. Verdatchamma and the Cumbum tank. Bandlamma.

Kitsamma. Kurumayya. Mangamma. Sandamma and Gumpamma.

Vinukonda Ankamma. Akka Devatalu. KulagoUamma.

Kudullamma. These local legends a distinguishing feature.

 

CHAPTER IX

 

The Dravidian Gods in Hindu Legends 

Origin of the legends. The Siva legends. The one hundred and

one kings. Legend of Renuka and the ant hill. Marriage of

Minakshi. The Vishnu legends. Renuka. Potu Razu. The

Rakshasas. The original Sakti. Legends of Korlapati Ankamma.

Legends of Matangi.

 

CHAPTER X

 

The Shepherds' Purana 

The legend of Gangamma. Pedda Razu. Katama Razu. The

Virulu.

 

CHAPTER XI

 

Influence of Dravidian Deities upon Hinduism no

Influence on Hindu ritual. Counter influence of Hinduism on

Dravidian rites. Dravidian method of forming gods adopted by

Hinduism. Mala Konda Swami. Narayanaswami. Kotappa

Konda Swami. Venagopala Swami. Aranjothi. Brahmans as

pujaris. Brahmans and Matangi worship. Brahmans profiting

by connection with Dravidian worship.

 

CHAPTER XII

 

Pundamental Conceptions in Dravidian Worship 

Sources of information as to fundamental conceptions. Did Dravidian

sacrifices originate in totemism? Fetishism in the Dravidian

conception. Dravidian animism. Dravidian demonolatry. The

meaning of the images. The meaning of the sacrifices. Origin

of the Dravidian gods. Morality of the Dravidian religion.

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